Chloroplast movement in A. capillus-veneris has been studied using linear protonemal cells or two-dimensional prothalli for more than 20 years. Both accumulation and avoidance responses can be induced by irradiating whole game-tophytes, but for analytical studies, partial cell irradiation using a microbeam irradiator or polarized light irradiation is more efficient and useful. The sensitivity of chloroplast movement to light varies among cells or even among parts of a single cell. The basal cell of a two-celled protonema is more sensitive than that in a single-celled and still growing protonema, although the reason for this is not known. The upper part of the basal cell is more sensitive than the lower part, probably because the upper part is physiologically younger than the lower part. We have observed a similar situation in two-dimensional gametophytes, i.e., a newly made region of a gametophyte is more sensitive than old cells located near the gametophyte base, although we do not have numerical data on the sensitivity. All the data presented below were obtained using highly sensitive cells or cell parts.
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