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Law Of Attraction For Kids

Winsome Coutts, a mother of two and a grandmother, has a teacher's certification in education and she has taught several schools in Australia and Canada. She has also written hundreds of articles concerning self-development. Winsome has a passion for the Law of attraction, meditation, Self-help of Personal development, goal setting, and the secret movie. She decided to engage in the pursuit of knowledge in the mentioned areas throughout her life. Winsome has considerable experience raising children following her studies in Child psychology at University, and as a past teacher, a parent, and a grandparent. She knows that when children learn how to plan for their future and how to achieve their goals, they have a skill that will last them a lifetime. Winsome personally studied with two popular teachers, John Demartini and Bob Proctor and both are featured in The Secret' movie. For several decades since the early 90s, she has been goal setting for kids, visualizing, and applying the law of attraction. The law of attraction for kids is the first book ever to describe the law of attraction and the term goal setting. The language employed is simple for your children to understand and it will answer any question about the life-changing topics in a more detailed parent's guide. Continue reading...

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I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

The Role Of Zip Family Members In Iron Transport

Abstract Deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron negatively impact plant and human health. Thus, understanding the uptake of iron from the soil is clearly the first step towards engineering plants better able to grow in soils now considered marginal, to increase crop biomass on soils now in cultivation and to improve the iron content of plant-based foods. IRT1 is the major iron transporter induced in the roots during the iron deficiency response. It is a founding member of the ZIP family of metal transporters, which includes over 100 proteins found in many diverse organisms including bacteria, fungi, mammals and plants. Here we review the role of IRT1 and other ZIP family members in iron transport in a variety of plant species including tomato, rice, Medicago truncatula and the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Using IRT1 as the example, we then review how iron controls gene expression, transcriptionally through iron regulated transcription factors such as FER and FIT1 and...

Rice research and poverty alleviation

The only solution to this low price high price dilemma is agricultural research. Farmers will be encouraged to continue producing even as prices fall only if research leads to higher productivity that compensates for the lower prices. If farmers are able to produce more rice per unit of input, then it is possible for the welfare of everyone to improve. Consumers will gain through lower prices, and the welfare of farmers will also improve as production per unit labor increases. Higher production per unit labor will allow farmers to shift some of their labor into nonfarm work, or will allow family members to migrate to urban areas in search of higher paying jobs. This shedding of labor from agriculture and diversification of income sources are key components of the structural transformation mentioned above. This process is well under way in Asia, and data from several different countries show that the share of rice in total farm household income is typically less than 50 (Sombilla and...

Redundancy and antagonism among closely related RLKs

The completion of the Arabidopsis genome sequencing project accelerated efforts toward elucidating the biological functions of RLKs via reverse genetics. It has become routine to isolate T-DNA insertion lines of closely related RLK family members to uncover their collective function as a family. Such an approach is especially powerful when a single RLK gene knockout fails to confer a dramatic, visible phenotype. Collectively, several studies have revealed both conservation and uniqueness in closely related RLK paralogs arisen from gene duplication events. This highlights immense complexities in RLK signal transduction, given that these paralogous RLKs most likely perceive the same ligand molecules. Here, some examples are described.

Perspectives Integrating Genetic and Transcriptomic Data

Genetic screens for male gametophytic mutations are far from reaching saturation given that almost all mutations are represented by single alleles. Estimates of the number of genes that are essential for male gametophyte development including the progamic phase can be based on equivalent segregation ratio distortion screens in which all mutants affecting transmission were characterized (Lalanne et al. 2004 Johnson et al. 2004). Based on the assumption that approximately 180 000 T-DNA insertions are required to achieve saturation, Johnson et al. (2004) estimated that 330 genes would be identified. Similar calculations for the transposon-based Ds screen (Lalanne et al. 2004) would predict 575 genes. However the proportion of mutants affecting development in these two screens varied from 10 (T-DNA) to 30 (Ds) corresponding to 30 to 170 genes respectively. In stark contrast, estimates of the total number of genes expressed throughout male gametophyte development based on microarray data...

Zygote and early embryo development

Localization of PIN1 is perturbed in gn embryos (Steinmann et al., 1999), but with a BFA-resistant form of GN, the PIN1 localization is no longer sensitive to BFA, whereas other trafficking processes remain affected (Geldner et al., 2003). Thus, GN is responsible for mediating the intracellular trafficking of PIN1-containing endosomes. Mutants of the vacuolar protein sorting 29 (VPS29), a member of the retromer complex, display similar embryonic defects as those reported for gn (Jaillais et al., 2007). Moreover, the PIN1 localization is also affected in these mutants. Genetic analysis indicates that the VPS29 function is required downstream of GN for proper PIN1 protein cycling. Although more PIN protein family members have been shown to rapidly cycle between the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments and to internalize upon BFA treatment, the GN action does not seem to mediate all PIN protein trafficking to the same extent (Friml et al., 2003 Geldner et al., 2003 Grebe et al.,...

A role for AP2 transcription factors

Recently, two additional PLT family members, PLT3 and BABY BOOM (BBM), have been identified that act in concert with PLT1 and PLT2, contributing to embryonic root development and stem cell maintenance (Galinha et al., 2007). From the heart stage of embryogenesis onward, the expression domain of PLT3 and BBM largely overlaps with that of PLT1 and PLT2, with the strongest expression in the basal stem cell niche. Removal of wild-type copies of PLT3 and or BBM in a plt1plt2 double mutant background increases the patterning defects in the root pole development. These defects culminate in root- and hypocotyl-less seedlings in the progeny of self-fertilized

Growth and Cell Organization Genes

The a-tubulin and actin proteins ESTs were identified in Suillus variegatus, Paxillus involutus, Tuber borchii and Pisolithus microcarpus mycelia under association. Studies revealed the a-tubulin, actin and associated proteins (actin-binding proteins) were active in symbiotic tissues (Timonen and Peterson 2002). Also the centractin-like protein, which functions similar to the tubulin (Menotta et al. 2004), was isolated from T. borchii-Tilia americana mycelium at 30 days of development. Expression of centractin is similar to the increased expression of E-MAP 115 (microtubule-associated protein) in Laccaria bicolor-Pinus resinosa mycelium between 6 and 72 h of contact (Podila et al. 2002). This protein is necessary to the microtubule complex, cytoskeleton formation, and cell polarity maintenance in epithelial cells (Masson and Kreis 1993). Likewise, the GAS 2-homologue (observed in 30-day-old associated T. borchii mycelium) has direct participation in the reorganization of cytoskeleton...

Is Protein Degradation Important For Execution Of Hr Cell Death

In addition to ubiquitin, several other ubiquitin-like polypeptide tags such as SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifiers), RUB (related to ubiquitin), and APG12 (autophagy-defective-12) have been identified in plants. Similar to ubiquitin, these alternative modifiers are attached to -lysyl groups of target proteins, thereby influencing their structure, location, and turnover (Vierstra and Callis, 1999). Evidence for the involvement of the ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO-1 in disease resistance was recently obtained for the interaction between Nicotiana benthamiana and the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Orth et al., 2000). The bacterial avirulence gene product AvrBsT induces HR cell death and shares significant similarity with the YopJ protein of the human pathogen Yersinia pestis, which inhibits the host immune response. These YopJ family members were shown to act as cysteine proteases, specifically removing SUMO-1 residues from its protein conjugates (Orth et al., 2000)....

Bark for banishing spirits

The taste of this Cinnamomum sp. (Plate 2-5, 2-6) bark is very hot. When a person is sick due to yam or taro spirits, he calls the spirit's name and spits out the Cinnamomum sp. bark in a spray. The strong, hot smell will deter the spirit causing the sickness. This bark works in the same way for the spirits of recently deceased people who may be loitering and disturbing you. It is often used in conjunction with a spell in the name of a wild dog to chase spirits away. This also works if someone is cross with you, and your child is restive and unhappy because that person's spirit is close to them.

The basic plan in lateral organs

The first questions we would like to address is How are lateral organs initiated And what changes are required at the initiation zone to allow for organ primordia to be formed Lateral organ primordia are established in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the SAM, a process preceded by the local down-regulation of SAM promoting factors (Fig. 2.1a). Maintenance of the undif-ferentiated state of the meristematic cells in the SAM requires the activity of transcription factor class I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) family members (Hake et al., 2004) partially acting by modulating hormonal balances (Jasinski et al., 2005 Yanai et al., 2005). High cytokinin levels induce CyclinD-mediated cell division and low gibberellin represses cell expansion, two characteristics important for undifferentiated cells (Riou-Khamlichi et al, 1999 Dewitte et al, 2007). KNOX proteins directly regulate the level of these hormones by binding the promoter and repressing the expression of the gibberellin biosynthesis gene...

The Inner Nuclear Membrane

The second family of plant INM proteins is in fact not membrane intrinsic but strongly associates with the NE very much like the earlier described components of the Ran cycle. The Aurora kinase family members regulate mitotic processes and two of the three Arabidopsis homologues have been found to localise to the NE (Kawabe et al. 2005). GFP fusions of these were followed throughout mitosis and were found to be present at the mitotic spindle, centromeres and the cell plate (Demidov et al. 2005 Kawabe et al. 2005). As serine-threonine kinases they have

Transmembrane and Circulating Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins are Involved in the Recognition of Bacteria

Two short PGRP family members have also been implicated in the cellular immune response to Gram-positive bacteria. PGRP-SA (semmelweis) mutants exhibited a marked and specific decrease ( 75 of animals showing no phagocytosis) in phagocytosis of S. aureus (Garver et al. 2006). Similarly, the PGRP-SC1a mutant picky is also specifically impaired in its ability to phagocytose S. aureus. Flies carrying the picky mutation failed to take up fluorescently-labeled S. aureus into their hemocytes and exhibited increased susceptibility to S. aureus infection. Furthermore, expression level of Drosomycin, the AMP target gene of the Toll pathway was virtually undetectable. PGRP-SA mutants showed similar humoral response impairments (Michel et al. 2001). This suggested that PGRP-SA and PGRP-SC1a are both important

Autoregulatory Mechanisms

MADS box transcription factors regulate transcription of target genes by binding a consensus sequence known as the CArG box, which represents the consensus sequence CC(A T)6GG. Besides the control of downstream target genes, MADS box factors often regulate their own expression or the expression of family members by autoregulatory mechanisms. Although the FM identity genes LFY, API, CAL and FUL are initially responsible for the activation of the floral organ identity genes, the floral organ identity genes themselves subsequently influence and refine their expression patterns (Krizek and Fletcher 2005). Studies in Arabidopsis, Antirrhinum and Petunia revealed that the expression of the B-class genes is maintained by complexes composed of B proteins (Schwarz-Sommer et al. 1992 Angenent et al. 1995a Samach et al. 1997). Positive autoregulatory loops have also been reported for AG and the homeotic proteins with which it interacts (SEP3, AP3 and PI de Folter et al. 2005 Gomez-Mena et al....

Kinesins Force Generating MAPs

(Walczak et al. 1998 Vos et al. 2000 Chen et al. 2002 Ambrose et al. 2005 Ambrose and Cyr 2007). In animals and fungi, these inward-directed sliding forces generated by Kinesin-14 counterbalance the outward pushing forces provided by Kinesin-5 (BimC) family members, as evidenced by the finding that loss of Kinesin-14 partially rescues the spindle-collapse phenotype found with Kinesin-5 disruption (Hoyt et al. 1993 O'Connell et al. 1993 Mountain et al. 1999 Sharp et al. 1999,2000). Although the balance of inward forces generated by Kinesin-14 with outward forces generated by Kinesin-5 has not yet been identified in plant spindles, it probably exists based on the similarity of Kinesin-14 phenotypes (Chen et al. 2002 Marcus et al. 2003 Ambrose et al. 2005 Ambrose and Cyr 2007) and the known localization of Kinesin-5 family members to the mitotic spindle in tobacco BY-2 cells and carrot cells (Asada et al. 1997 Barroso et al. 2000). It has been suggested that the abundance of Kinesin-14...

External supply and plant demand

Everwet forests that harbor adaptively diverse bromeliad species demonstrate how family members partition nutrient capital in shared ecosystems. Resolution is uncommonly high for reasons related to plant architecture, physiology and capacity to grow on the ground and up through the canopy to its most exposed and hostile perches (e.g., Figs. 5.1, 7.11, 7.12).

Iron Uptake From The Soil

Both Strategy I and Strategy II components belong to gene families. The functions of gene family members not involved in root Fe mobilisation are not known. Interestingly, grasses possess homologues of Strategy I genes, and dicot plants contain homologues of some, but not all, Strategy II genes. It is speculated that these additional Strategy I and Strategy II homologues may be involved in Fe transport in organs and tissues other than roots. Such aspects will be further discussed in the following paragraphs.

Expansins and Glycosyl Hydrolases

Arabidopsis harbors approximately 380 glycosyl hydrolases, which degrade different polymers in the apoplast during plant growth and development and also in response to pathogens (Minic and Jouanin 2006). The glycosyl hydrolases are divided into 113 classes according to sequence homology and structure (http www.cazy.org Henrissat et al. 2001). One class of enzymes that is involved in cell wall hydrolysis and reorganization is xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase hydrolases (XTHs Rose et al. 2002). Some XTHs not only have the exceptional ability to function as endohydrolases of xyloglucan chains but also can transfer and reconnect the newly generated reducing end to another xyloglucan chain in a process often referred to as molecular grafting (Fry 2004). Xyloglucan is thought to tether cellulose microfibrils and maintain their spatial arrangement (see Sects. 2.1 and 2.2). Thus, XTHs are able to strengthen, maintain, or loosen the hemicellulosic cross-links between cellulose microfibrils,...

The Frd3 Gene And Predicted Protein Product

The FRD3 gene was cloned by a map-based approach and shown to encode a protein belonging to the MATE (multidrug and toxin efflux) family of transmembrane exporters (Rogers and Guerinot, 2002). The mapping data was confirmed by complementation of the mutant phenotypes by genomic DNA containing only the predicted FRD3 gene and by the presence of sequence changes in all mutant alleles (Rogers and Guerinot, 2002). FRD3 is predicted to encode an integral membrane protein 526 amino acids long. Topology prediction programs and comparisons with other MATE family members indicate that the FRD3 protein likely contains 12 transmembrane

Other Members Of The Mate Family

Functionally characterized members of the MATE family appear to efflux low molecular weight organic compounds from the cell cytoplasm either out of the cell or into a subcellular compartment (for a summary, see Rogers and Guerinot, 2002). There are at least 56 MATE family members in Arabidopsis (Li et al., 2002 Rogers and Guerinot, 2002). They play roles in processes as diverse as salicylic acid localization, flavonoid transport, and detoxification. Therefore it is very difficult to predict a function for a newly discovered MATE protein simply based on protein sequence similarity to a previously characterized MATE family member.

The First Step Internalization at the Plasma Membrane

Occur independently of clathrin, its associated adaptor proteins, and dy-namin, in a process that depends on correct organization of the actin cy-toskeleton (D'Hondt et al. 2000). Additionally, in yeast, many proteins to be endocytosed are targeted for internalization by the post-translational addition of ubiquitin (Dupre et al. 2004). S. cerevisiae contains three homologues of Rab5, Ypt51 52 53, and newly endocytosed cargo also traverses compartments labeled with these Rab GTPases (Singer-Kruger et al. 1995 Gerrard et al. 2000). However, it is unclear whether Ypt51 family members are directly involved in receptor clustering and vesicle budding events as described for the Rab5-like GTPases in animal cells.

Sorting Steps in the Early Endosome

When compared with other eukaryotic Rab GTPases, the three members of the A. thaliana RabF sub-group show highest similarity to HsRab5 and yeast Ypt51 family members (Pereira-Leal and Seabra 2001 Vernoud et al. 2003). Subsequent experiments have demonstrated that A. thaliana members of this family also appear to reside on endocytic compartments. Both AtRabF2a Rha1 and AtRabF2b Ara7 have been shown to localize to similar internal membrane compartments that become quickly labeled by the lipophilic fluorescent styryl dye, FM 4-64 (Ueda et al. 2001). Additionally, upon BFA treatment, PIN1 and several other plasma membrane proteins and cell wall components have been shown to accumulate within RabF2b Ara7 compartments (Geldner et al. 2001 Baluska et al. 2002). Further evidence that the RabF2a RabF2b compartment is involved in endocytic recycling of newly internalized plasma membrane proteins comes from examination of these compartments in gnom mutants. Inactivation of GNOM, which is an...

Conclusions And Fiveyear Viewpoint

May also show whether differential kinase activity, autophosphorylation sites, and substrate preferences will allow a grouping of kinases that correlates with the phylo-genetic arrangement of subfamily categories determined by kinase domain sequence alignment. The LRR motif is thought to be involved in PPIs, and it would not be surprising if many LRR RLKs formed a variety of heterodimers among family members, which might be essential for signaling responses to different ligands. Thus, a tool set of LRR RLK clones with different epitope tags will be useful for interaction studies both in vitro and in vivo. Characterization of the BRI1 BAK1 model system has shown that plant receptor kinases share the general paradigm of animal receptor kinase function, including ligand-dependent heterodimerization and phosphorylation on specific residues of the cytoplasmic kinase domain. We plan to expand the BRI1 BAK1 approach to other LRR RLKs of both known and unknown function to increase our...

Reducing Gene Expression

The basic approach is to clone a cDNA fragment behind a strong constitutive or tissue-specific promoter, and to introduce the antisense construct into plants by T-DNA-mediated transformation (see Chapter 5). Both partial and complete cDNAs have been used with some success. For subsequent analysis, it is convenient to use a fragment that will produce a message that can be easily differentiated from the endogenous sense RNA. It is most practical if the antisense RNA is significantly larger or smaller than the endogenous message. If the gene of interest is a member of a gene family with several closely related members, only one of which is being targeted, regions that contain more than ten or so consecutive identical nucleotides should be avoided. This is not an issue if the aim is to reduce the expression of all the family members.

Reverse Genetics Analysis Using Gene Down Regulation

Kanamycin resistance trait, which was linked to the NTP303-silencing gene, was not transmitted through the male gametophyte. This indicated that lowering the transcript level of NTP303 and its family members interferes with pollen function. In vivo studies demonstrated that NTP303 and its family members are essential for normal pollen tube growth.

Methodology And Experimental Results

Sequencing of the complete genomes of many eukaryotic organisms and the availability of searchable databases has led to bioinfor-matic approaches for the identification of protein families. Highly conserved motifs in the families can be used to search the databases for potential family members in individual species and between species. At SMART (http smart.embl-heidelberg.de) a taxon can be searched for a particular domain. A list of proteins containing that domain in the selected group can be retrieved. However, possibly not all returned proteins have the domain of interest and not all proteins that have the domain are present in the database. Therefore, using the list as a starting point, all proteins can be analyzed at InterProScan (www.ebi.ac.uk InterProScan ) to verify the presence of the domain and also to identify other domains in each protein. To ensure that all the proteins in the genome of interest have been identified, it is necessary to do BLAST...

The PI4K Family in A thaliana

Examination of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome reveals twelve predicted PI4K family members (Fig. 1 Stevenson et al. 2000 Miieller-Roeber and Pical 2002). PI4Ks are characterized by a predicted catalytic domain, and are divided into three Fig. 1 A. thaliana has Twelve Predicted PI4K Proteins. Protein sequences of the predicted AtPI4K family members were obtained from The Arabidopsis Information Resource (www.arabidopsis. org). Full-length protein sequences were aligned using CLUSTALX PC V.181 (Thompson et al. 1997). Unrooted phylogenetic trees of full-length PI4K family members were created by MEGA V.21 (Kumar et al. 2001), using the p-distance method with gaps treated by pairwise deletions and a 500 bootstrap replicate Fig. 2 Protein Domain Structure of PI4K-Family Members in A. thaliana. The Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool (SMART) was used to predict locations of kinase domains (Schultz et al. 1998). Information concerning the size and location of the PH, NH, UBL,...

Almost All the Other SNAREs Soon Follow

Still missing from both of these complexes is an R-SNARE. It is widely believed, though not yet shown experimentally, that the R-SNARE for PM-complexes is a member of the VAMP72 group. The VAMP72 group of SNAREs is represented by seven genes in Arabidopsis, and appears to be unique to green plants (Sanderfoot et al. 2000). Uemura et al. (2004) showed that fluorescent protein fusions to VAMP72-family members were generally found on the PM when transiently expressed in leaf protoplasts, supporting the possibility that these may represent the R-SNARE(s) for a cell-plate complex. Since protoplasts do not divide, their methods cannot help us to understand whether (and which of) the seven members may be involved. Further work in plants is necessary to clearly indicate the proper R-SNAREs for the two Qa+Qb+Qc-SNARE complexes on the cell plate.

The Pinformed Pin Transporter Family

Plant APC transporters are categorized into two subfamilies as cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) and L-type amino acid transporters (LATs). Both plant transporter families are identified according to their homology to mammalian transporters (Verrey et al. 2004). The members of the CAT subfamily have 14 putative TMs and mediate Na+-independent uptake of cationic amino acids. Nine family members have been found in the Arabidopsis genome (AtCAT1-9). CAT1 and CAT5 show activity as high-affinity transporters for basic amino acids (Su et al. 2004), whereas CAT6 is a low-affinity transporter for lysine and neutral amino acids (Hammes et al. 2006). Most CATs are localized to the PM, but tonoplast localization has also been found (CAT2) (Su et al. 2004). LATs have 12 TMs and are represented with six predicted genes in Arabidopsis. They are related to APCs from yeast (Wipf et al. 2002). Amino acid transporters of both families mediate H+- or Na+-coupled sym- or antiport of amino acids....

Evolution of Endocytic Compartments in Eukaryotes

Meanwhile, R-SNARE VAMP is composed of two family members, Brevin and Longin. The Brevin is typically quite small, having no N-terminal extension from the SNARE-domain and transmembrane helices. The Longin has SNARE helices centered on R-residues like the Brevin, however, additionally it has also a long N-terminal extension. Longins form three main subclasses (Sec22, Ykt6, and TI-VAMP VAMP7) which are conserved across most eukaryote lineages including Brassicaceae. The Sec22 family is involved in ER-to-Golgi traffic. The Ykt6 family has a lipid anchor rather than a C-terminal transmembrane domain, and is involved in many different trafficking events in the cell. In mammals, TI-VAMP VAMP7 interacts with several t-SNARE molecules, and is involved in plasmalemmal and late endosomal fusion events (Filippini et al., 2001 Gonzalez et al., 2001 Rossi et al., 2004). Interestingly, the Arabidopsis genome does not encode any genes for R-type Brevins. Instead, the role played by R-type Brevins...

Sucrose Biosynthesis in Source Leaves

There is growing evidence that higher plants contain more than one gene encoding SPS. An inspection of the Arabidopsis genome revealed the presence of four genes putatively encoding SPS enzymes, all of which appear to be both transcribed (Lunn and MacRae, 2003) and enzymatically active (F. Bornke, unpublished data). Phylogenetically, the four SPS sequences from Arabidopsis and all those known from other dicot species fall into three families A, B and C (Lunn and MacRae, 2003). Recently, it was shown that monocot species contain an additional D family that probably arose after monocots and dicots diverged (Castleden et al., 2004). The number of SPS genes in plants raises the question about functional specialisation of particular isoforms. A-family members have been the subject of most expression studies and most of the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) examined belong to the A-family, implying that A-family genes are more abundantly expressed than those belonging to other families....

Differential Proteome Profiles during PMIs

Inoculated with rice blast fungus or treated with elicitors to identify pathogen-induced proteins. A total of 14 spots were induced or increased. Out of the 14 spots, 12 proteins were identified by either N-terminal or internal sequencing OsPR10, isoflavone reductase-like protein, P-glucosidase and putative OsRLK, six isoforms of PBZ1 (an OsPR10 family member), and 2 isoforms of SalT. They also applied their study to comprehensive analysis of M. grisea -responsive proteins from rice (cv. Jinheung) leaves by use of the PEG (15 w v) fractionation technique, previously developed to remove RuBisCO into the pellet fraction 11 . A number of spots differentially expressed in response to the infection were identified by MALDI-TOF. The identified proteins were two RLKs, glucanase 1, glucanase 2, and POX 22.3, PBZ1, and OsPR10. Results confirmed using Northern Western blot analyses revealed that their induction of TLP, OsRLK, PBZ1, and OsPR10 was faster and higher in the incompatible...

General Description And Taxonomic Division Of The Umbelliferae Family

The germination type of the Umbelliferae family members is epigeic. The family can be divided according to the form of the cotyledon into two groups. There are species with long, narrow cotyledons and in the other group the outline of the cotyledon is more or less round. The shape of primary leaves is characteristic for the different species.

Reproduction and life history

Orchidaceae demonstrate how disparate even those breeding mechanisms maintained by related epiphytes can be. Most family members are self-compatible (Dressier 1981), but quite a few regularly outcross, sometimes with floral contrivances featuring almost legendary complexity and specificity. Best known of the allogamous forms in tropical forests are the cymbidioids (e.g., Catasetum, Stanhopea, Coryanthes) whose flowers attract pollen vectors via complex combinations of volatiles. Males of a single local euglos-sine bee population often visit a single plant species - occasionally even just one among two or more intraspecific chemotypes - to forage not for food but for the fragrance that reputedly aids subsequent mate procurement and or reproduction (Williams and Whitten 1983). Such foragers are attracted to no other orchid although members of other plant families are used as nutrient sources. The euglossines that service the cymbidioids are also nota-

Zinctransporting Genes In Plants

In phytoremediation, it must be considered that a transporter capable of transporting a specific contaminant metal cation is capable of transporting other competing cations, like Ca2+ or Zn2+, under natural soil conditions if the latter ions are present in large excess. Therefore, it is desirable to better understand what governs the specificity of membrane transporters, in order to generate mutated transporters with altered specificities 84 . Understanding the regulation of ZIP family members in T. caerulescens and analyzing Arabidopsis mutants with altered metal responses will also help to identify novel target genes and strategies for the generation of plants with enhanced metal uptake 93 . The ZIP family members have 309 to 476 aa this range is largely due to variation in the number of residues between transmembrane domains III and IV, a domain designated as variable. The amino acid sequences of all the known ZIP family members were aligned, and a dendrogram describing their...

Role of TIRContaining Adapter Molecules in TLR Signaling

Five TIR-containing intracellular adapter molecules have been identified, and four are known to participate in TLR signaling. MyD88 was the first adapter protein found to mediate IL-1R and TLR signaling (Muzio et al. 1997 Wesche et al. 1997 Burns et al. 1998 Kawai et al. 1999, 2001). MyD88 is comprised of a C-terminal TIR domain involved in interaction with TLRs and an N-terminal death domain that associates with IRAK family members (Muzio et al. 1997 Wesche et al. 1997 Burns et al. 1998). MyD88 is required for responses by most TLRs except TLR3 (Kawai et al. 1999, 2001 Kaisho et al. 2001 Yamamoto et al. 2002a), and is recruited to TLRs via homotypic TIR-TIR domain interactions (Muzio et al. 1997 Wesche et al. 1997 Burns et al. 1998). This triggers the association of MyD88 with IL-1R-associated kinases (IRAK)-4 and IRAK-1, and subsequent phosphorylation reactions by IRAK-4 and IRAK-1 (Muzio et al. 1997 Wesche et al. 1997 Burns et al. 1998 Li et al. 2004 Kollewe et al. 2004), resulting...

Flavin Binding Domain Proteins As Photoreceptors In Photosynthetic Eukaryotes

The last member of the family, LKP2 (LOV KELCH REPEAT PROTEIN 2) simply turned up in a database search for Arabidopsis PAS proteins, although it was subsequently shown that plants over-expressing LKP2 exhibited arrhythmic circadian phenotypes for multiple outputs, and long hypocotyl and late flowering phenotypes (Schultz et al., 2001). The arrhythmic phenotype was also observed in constant dark suggesting a role close to the oscillator as seen in the figure, although true loss-of-function alleles would be needed to confirm that conclusion. Similar to ZTL, LKP2 transcripts are not clock-regulated. These data suggest a role for LKP2 near to ZTL on the input side of the circadian system (Figure 10). Although LKP2 can function in the dark, like its brethren ZTL and FKF1, the LOV domain of LKP2 binds FMN and displays spectral properties similar to the other two family members (Imaizumi et al., 2003), strongly suggestive of a role of light in somehow influencing the activity of the protein....

Monitoring the Worm Innate Immune Response Following Different Modes of Pathogen Infections

A hallmark of the innate immune response in C. elegans, as in other invertebrates, is the challenge-induced synthesis of a battery of antimicrobial peptides and proteins, which are expressed in tissues in contact with invading microorganisms. C. elegans encodes a wide diversity of candidate immune effectors, which include lysozymes, caenopores or saposin-like proteins (ssp), antimicrobial caenacins (cnc) and neuro-peptide-like proteins (nlp), thaumatins (thm), PR-1 plant antimicrobial homologues, lipases, proteins with Metridin-like ShK toxin domain SHKT, defensin like ABF peptides (abf), C-type lectins (clec) and CUB-like gene family members (see reviews by Schulenburg et al. 2008 Nicholas and Hodgkin 2004b). Microarray experiments designed to identify pathogen-induced genes have revealed many effectors which may recognize or eliminate pathogens. Among them are the C-type lectin domain containing proteins (CTLD) which are part of a large family of mostly secreted proteins whose exact...

Pollen Graivn Preface

Family members of Professor Shripad N. Agashe, wife Dr. Nirmala, daughters Sandhya and Swapna, Helen Caulton, wife of Dr. Eric Caulton and their son David Caulton have been directly or indirectly responsible for initiating and completing this book and to whom it is dedicated.

Ptd Ins4P Phosphatases in A thaliana

The phosphatase activities of most members of the A. thaliana SAC domain family remain uncharacterized. In S. cerevisiae, Sac1p was initially identified as a suppressor of actin defects (Novick et al. 1989), and was later demonstrated to have PtdIns4P phosphatase activity (Hughes et al. 2000b). Three A. thaliana SAC family members, AtSAC6-8, are able to rescue the yeast sac1 mutant, showing these phosphatases can display PtdIns4P phosphatase activity. However, as yeast Sac1p is able to dephosphorylate multiple PPIs in vitro (Hughes et al. 2000b Despres et al. 2003), the possibility that AtSAC6-8 may act on other PPI isoforms other than PtdIns4P in plants cannot be excluded. Of the A. thaliana Sac1-like proteins, only AtSAC7, also known as ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE4 (RHD4), has been shown to Fig. 3 A. thaliana has Nine Predicted SAC Domain-Containing Proteins. (a). Protein sequences of the predicted AtSAC family members were obtained from The Arabidopsis Information Resource...

Passive Transport Through the PM

A number of calcium channel activities have been characterized in plants including Ca2+ influx and efflux transporters (see chapter Mechanism and Evolution of Calcium Transport Across the Plant Plasma Membrane by Connorton et al.). The corresponding genes for these activities have not yet been identified. Candidate genes that could encode plant PM Ca2+ channels belong mainly to the families of ionotropic glutamate receptor channel homologs (GluR) (Lacombe et al. 2001) with 20 members and the gene family of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGs), which also have 20 family members in Arabidopsis. In both cases, ample circumstantial evidence indicating activity as calcium channels for these proteins has been gathered.

Guggulsterones Fig 5205

The molecular basis for the lipid-lowering action of guggulsterones has been suggested to be an antagonism of the farnesoid X receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor super family of ligand-activated transcription factors. Guggulsterones activate the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and pregnane X receptor with EC50 values in low micromolar range. Guggulsterone-mediated activation of pregnane X receptor induces the expression of CYP3A genes both in rodent and human hepatocytes. Pregnane X receptor activation is known to cause herb-drug interactions and it has been suggested that guggulipid therapy should be used cautiously in patients taking prescription medications that are metabolized by the CYP3A family members.

Meristem Embryo and Organ Development

DRN is an important player in meristem and organ development. It can induce cytokinin-independent shoot formation when overexpressed in root explants (Banno et al. 2001). Moreover, DRN and its closest relative, DORNROSCHEN-LIKE (DRNL), interact with PHAVOLUTA and other type III HD-ZIP family members to control Arabidopsis embryo patterning (Chandler et al. 2007). DRNL SOB ESR2 BOL has been associated with the development of other organs (Ikeda et al. 2006 Marsch-Martinez et al. 2006 Ward et al. 2006 Nag et al. 2007). It has been shown to play a role in cotyledon development, and to regulate CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 that is involved in meristem specification (Ikeda et al. 2006). The genes are also necessary for stamen emergence in Arabidopsis (Nag et al. 2007). Moreover, activation tagged mutants with DRNL overexpression exhibited altered leaf and organ formation due to changes in cell expansion and in the regulation of proliferation differentiation pathways (Marsch-Martinez et al. 2006).

Etiology And Pathophysiology

Studies have found a greater frequency of certain traits and characteristics among parents of autistic than of healthy children. Greater maternal and paternal age are independently associated with an increased risk for ASD in offspring.7 Additionally, mothers who have allergies and asthma during the second trimester of pregnancy have a twofold greater than average risk of having a child with ASD. Although this same study found maternal psoriasis to be the only autoimmune disease associated with an increased risk for ASD,8 another study found a link between both maternal ulcerative colitis and paternal type 1 diabetes and increased risk for infantile autism.9 Studies have indicated that children with ASD have numerous abnormalities in immune function. Studies have shown that these children have significantly increased proportion of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes making IL-4, with a relative decrease of CD4 and CD8 cells making IL-2 and interferon-gamma indicating impaired cellular immunity...

Unravelling Transcriptional Regulation by CoExpression Analysis

Remodelling factors are expressed together with hordein genes, protease inhibitors, two DOF, two bHLH, three NAC and 16 unknown transcription factors. It has been shown that chromatin structure interacts with the transcriptional machinery to regulate phaseolin gene expression (Li et al. 2001). Diaz et al. (2005) reported that two DOF transcription factors (SAD and BPBF) activate B1 storage protein genes during the maturation phase. Accordingly, the same two DOF-family members are expressed together with hordein transcripts. Enrichment of prolamin-box cis elements was observed in the upstream sequences of rice D, B1 and B3 hordein genes (Sreenivasulu et al. 2006). These cis-elements bind TFs of the DOF, bZIP and R2R3MYB classes, including BPBF and SAD proteins (Vicente-Carbajosa et al. 1997, 1998 Mena et al. 1998 Onate et al. 1999 Diaz et al. 2002, 2005). These results indicate a complex network of regulation necessary for transcriptional activation of these storage protein genes.

Other Possible Downstream Pathways Formins Exocyst and RabA4

In animal cells, the actin nucleating process by formins is the rate-limiting step for de novo actin filament synthesis, and some formins are known to be activated by interaction with Rho via a G protein-binding domain (Evangelista et al. 2003). It is reported that a group I formin (AFH1) of 20 Arabidopsis formin family members promoted pollen tube growth at a low level of expression and induced depolarization of tip growth at a high level of expression (Cheung and Wu 2004 Michelot et al. 2005). This suggests that actin nu-cleation via AFH1 is involved in pollen tube growth. However, it is unclear whether formins are involved in ROP-mediated F-actin assembly, because plant formins lack the G protein-binding domain.

Results and Discussion

The ability of a plant to measure the amount of a particular hormone obligately requires the presence of hormone-specific receptors. The tomato ethylene receptor gene family is comprised of at least six members (LeETR1-6), all showing significant homology to ethylene receptor family members in Arabidopsis (Zhou et al. 1996a, Zhou et al. 1996b, Lashbrook et al. 1998,Tieman and Klee 1999). Within the tomato gene family there is significant divergence between family members with some pairings having only 50 identity to each other. All of the receptors additionally show considerable homology to two-component systems found in prokaryotic organisms (Chang et al. 1993). Ethylene receptors were the first genes identified in plants that showed homology to these prokaryotic systems but it is unclear whether they function in a similar manner. and all of the conserved residues of known histidine kinases. Subfamily II members contain four transmembrane domains and degenerate histidine kinase...

Concluding Remarks

Arabidopsis and Populus mutants that show defects in vascular development and cellular studies with the Zinnia xylogenic culture cells have provided insights into the formation of vascular tissues. Formation of the vascular system is a complex developmental process that must be regulated via the interactions of diverse genetic components and growth hormones. Patterning and organization of vascular system are quite variable among diVerent species. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their spatial and temporal regulation are likely shared by virtually all vascular plants. For example, the HD-ZIPIII genes and its molecular regulator miR165 166 are present in diverse plant species (Floyd and Bowman, 2004), strongly supporting that key molecules and mechanisms regulating vascular development are conserved in all vascular plants. In addition, recent genome-wide expression analyses in secondary vascular tissues have produced interesting findings. Several genes known to function in...

Signal Transduction in Response to Abiotic Stresses Specificity and Cross Talk

Myb proteins as well as bZIP HD-ZIPs and AP2 EREBP domain proteins (Kizis et al. 2001). Further, Seki et al. (2002) employed a full-length cDNA microarray, containing 7,000 independent Arabidopsis cDNAs to identify cold, drought and salinity-induced target genes and stress-related transcription factor family members such as DREB, ERF, WRKY, MYB, bZIP, helix-loop-helix and NAC. ABA is not only involved in drought-specific responses but also there is a cross-talk in cold and salinity stress responses (Seki et al. 2002).

Drought Responsive Molecular Mechanisms 1341 Drought Signalling

Guard cell closure is mediated by ABA through SnRK family members, one of which is known as open stomata 1 (OST1) in Arabidopsis, in a Ca2+-mediated signalling pathway, also involving ROS (Israelsson et al. 2006). Interestingly, SnRK2.8, which is similar to OST1, also responds to drought independently of ABA. The OST1-related SnRKs appear to phosphorylate bZIP TFs, among them AREB1 and ABI5 (Furihata et al. 2006). Moes et al. (2008) suggest that ABA-induced stomatal closure and ABA-mediated changes in gene expression may, in fact, constitute different modes of ABA action. Evidence for this hypothesis may be afforded by the finding that ABF3 functions in drought responses, but to a much lesser extent in stomatal regulation (Finkelstein et al. 2005).

Integration of Endosymbiont Metabolism with Host Metabolism Was a Host Driven Process

Integration of plastid and host metabolism was predominantly a host-driven process, in which transport proteins encoded by the host genome acquired targeting signals for routing to the chloroplast and were inserted into the chloroplast envelope membrane. A surprisingly large share of plastid envelope membrane transporters, such as the adenine nucleotide transporters, the dicarboxylate translocators, and some metal-transporting ATPases have their evolutionary origin in prokary-otic intracellular energy parasites (i.e., Chlamydia and or Rickettsia). Most of these genes have already been introduced into the genome of the protoalga by horizontal transfer, and they have been maintained throughout plant evolution, emphasizing their importance for connecting the metabolism of plastid and cytosol 152 . Other plastid transporters belong to the mitochondrial carrier family, such as the folate transporter FOLT1 and the S-adenosylmethionine transporter SAMT1 16, 152, 164 . In this case, proteins...

Are Guidance Factors Universal or Species Specific

There is ample experimental evidence indicating that important components of tube guidance mechanisms are species specific (Swanson et al. 2004). For example, pollen tubes of fellow Brassica family members like Brassica sp. and Orychophragmus violaceus fail to target Arabidopsis ovules in interspecific crosses (Kandasamy et al. 1994 Shimizu and Okada 2000). Pollen tubes germinate on the stigma and grow down the transmitting tract, but the majority of tubes failed to exit the transmitting tissue and those that did grew in the ovary in a fashion similar to tubes growing toward ovules lacking an FG (Ray et al. 1997 Shimizu and Okada 2000). Therefore, both the transmitting tract exit point signal (phase 3) and later signals mediating funicular

Identified Thylakoid Phosphoproteins

The thylakoid protein kinases (TAKs), represented by three family members in A. thaliana, have been shown phosphorylated by immunoblotting with anti-phosphothreonine and anti-phosphoserine antisera (Snyders andKohorn, 1999). The thylakoid kinase Stt7 in C. reinhardtii has also been suggested to undergo in vivo phosphorylation (Depege et al., 2003). This proposal was based on indirect evidence showing a shift in the electrophoretic mobility of the protein after treatment of thylakoids with a phosphatase (Depege et al., 2003). TAKs and Stt7 have been implied in phospho-rylation of LHCII and state transitions (Snyders and Kohorn, 1999, 2001 Depege et al., 2003). Phospho-rylation of other thylakoid proteins, including LHCII, was reduced in antisense TAK1 Arabidopsis mutants (Snyders and Kohorn, 2001). The activity of all of these protein kinases and their regulation was suggested to be part of a possible cascade of redox-controlled thy-lakoid protein phosphorylation (Snyders and Kohorn,...

Disruption of Putative TORC1 Regulators and Effectors

Genetic analysis of AML1 in Arabidopsis (Anderson and Hanson 2005) is complicated by the fact that it is one of five members of a gene family whose constituents show a high degree of similarity both in sequence and expression patterns (Anderson et al. 2004). Lines misexpressing AML1 have not been recovered. However, the accumulation of AML transcripts in the shoot and root meristem embryonic precursors speaks to their importance in plant development. Insertion alleles are available for all AML gene family members. Single and higher order insertion homozygotes grow at the same rate as wild-type but bolt earlier. More significantly, at a lower degree of penetrance, AML mutants show meiotic defects, sterility, defects in gametophyte development, and in some allele combinations, developmental arrest as seedlings (Kaur et al. 2006). The AML mutant meiotic defects argue strongly for a conserved role of Mei2-like proteins in meiosis regulation across a broad range of organisms. The AML...

Pregnancy indications

Recommendations for Echinacea use are most frequently obtained through nonmedical sources, including word of mouth, friends, and family members (Gallo et al., 2000). Consequently, the quality and accuracy of information provided on product type and pattern of use may not always be reliable.

The PIN Family of Auxin Efflux Facilitators

PIN proteins, named for the pin-formed inflorescence phenotype of the pinl mutant (Okada et al., 1991), align with the vector of auxin transport, and are necessary for normal polarized plant development and auxin movement (Benkova et al., 2003 Blilou et al., 2005 Chen and Masson, this volume). Further, pin mutants exhibit altered auxin transport and phenotypes that can be phenocopied by AEI treatment (Friml and Palme, 2002). The A. thaliana PIN family consists of eight members that have distinct, yet overlapping, functions in auxin transport (Benkova et al., 2003 Blilou et al., 2005 Friml, 2003 Friml and Palme, 2002). PIN1 plays an essential role in the basipetal transport of auxin in shoot tissues, and acropetal transport in root tissues (Galweiler et al., 1998 Palme and Galweiler, 1999). PIN2 AGR1 EIR2 is expressed in roots, is required for gravitropic bending, and functions in both ethylene responses and basipetal auxin transport from the root tip (Chen et al., 1998 Muller et al.,...

Informatics Approaches Using Plant Genome Sequence Information

Data generated from plant genome sequencing projects have assisted in the identification of a number of homologs of known MT-binding proteins 8, 9 . This has been extremely useful in identifying plant MAPs that have not surfaced using other approaches. Sequence database searches have also provided information on the level of redundancy of genes encoding MT-binding proteins in plants. This has led to more detailed analysis of tissue- and cell-specific expression, and the MT array-specific binding of individual MAP family members.

Saltspecific Traits

For Na+ exclusion, and maintenance of high K+ Na+ ratios in leaves, HKT genes are considered important in the regulation of Na+ and K+ in higher plants, and in mediating salinity tolerance in plants (Horie et al., 2009 Munns and Tester, 2008 Pardo, 2010). HKT genes are important for cellular Na+ and K+ homeostasis and some family members are responsible for

Rotate Crops

Rotating (essentially taking away) a pest's or disease's preferred host plant hampers its ability to feed and reproduce. If the cornfield were planted with wheat the following year, the borers and earworms would be forced to look someplace else for food. They could not continue to feed and build their populations on that site. Another example of crops that benefit from rotation is members of the cabbage family (Cruciferae). Many diseases such as black leg (a fungus) and black rot (a bacterium) can quickly establish themselves in a cabbage patch. The first year's crop may get by with minimal damage, but if cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, or other crucifers are planted there again the following year, the disease organisms are ready and waiting to infect defenseless young plants. Rotating cabbage family members with crops that belong to other plant families breaks the disease cycle. For more on crop rotation, see page 415.

Ligands for RLKs

The presence of the plant cell walls prohibits direct contact of two transmembrane molecules in adjacent cells. Therefore, direct association of transmembrane ligands and corresponding receptors, such as Delta and Notch association, which control various patterning events in animals, will not likely occur in plants, and plant ligands need to be small, diffusible molecules. Despite the fact that plants possess numerous RLK multigene family members ( 610 in total in Arabidopsis), the nature of their corresponding ligands remains poorly understood (Matsubayashi et al., 2001 Shiu and Bleecker, 2001a Torii, 2004). Three factors should be taken into account regarding the apparent discrepancy in the numbers of RLKs versus corresponding ligands origin, size, and diversity. First, in regards to origin, ligands for plant RLKs may not be encoded by the plant genome. For example, pathogen-origin pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized by plant RLKs to trigger defense...

The primary sequence

Sequence comparison among Rho family members reveals that ROPs are clearly distinct from RAC, RHO, and CDC42 and belong to a unique subfamily of Rho GTPases. Most striking differences are several conserved amino acid substitutions found in the GTP-binding motifs (Zheng and Yang, 2000 Yang, 2002 Berken, 2006). Another significant difference is 2-4-amino acid deletion in the Rho insert region, a domain found only in the Rho GTPases of the Ras superfamily and proposed to function in effector interaction or effector activation (Bishop and Hall, 2000 Thapar et al., 2002 Berken, 2006).

The Role of CDKs

It has also been shown in Arabidopsis that CycA2 3 negatively regulates endoreduplication and ploidy levels (Imai et al. 2006). The involvement of CYCA2 in repressing endoreduplication was further confirmed by the observation that transcription of all CYCA2 family members was repressed in the increased level ofpolyploidy1-1D mutant, in which endoreduplication is stimulated (Yoshizumi et al. 2006). Although CYCA2 inhibits endoreduplication, it does not seem to play a role in the mitosis endoreduplication switch. However, the SIAMESE (SIM) protein, which interacts with and inhibits CycD and CDKA 1, appears to control the balance (switch) between mitotic and endo-reduplication cell cycles (Churchman et al. 2006).

Heavy Metal Stress

Supra-optimal concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn and Ni affect growth, development and yield of plants (Pahlsson, 1989 Sresty and Rao, 1999). However, Cu, Zn and Ni are essential micronutrients at low concentrations. Heavy metals affect several physiological (Barcelo and Poschenrieder, 1990) and metabolic processes (Van Assche and Clijsters, 1990 Hall, 2002 Schutzendubel and Polle, 2002). Plants have developed several mechanisms that control and respond to the uptake and accumulation of both essential and nonessential heavy metals (Cobbet and Goldsbrough, 2002). These tolerance mechanisms in plants vary from species to species and their genetic background. The important heavy metal tolerance mechanisms include, metal binding to wall, reduced transport across the cell membrane, active efflux of metals, compart-mentalization, chelation and sequestration of heavy metals by particular ligands such as phytochelatins and metallothioneins (Tomsett and Thurman, 1988...

Sugar Transporters

Only one sugar transporter mutation has so far been shown to result in a pollen phenotype. A T-DNA gene disruption of SUC1 (hap3) was found to be completely male sterile (Johnson et al. 2004). In vivo cytological analysis indicated that mutant pollen tubes failed to enter the transmitting tract. SUC1 belongs to a family of sucrose H+ symporters localized at the PM (Stadler et al. 1999). Transcriptome data indicates it is the only SUC gene that is highly expressed relative to six other SUC family members in tricellular pollen (Fig. 2C). It is interesting that in spite of several monosaccharide H+ symporters in developing pollen, the genetic studies would suggest that a sufficient quantity of sucrose is critical to support pollen tube growth.

Carbon Availability

Because legume seeds mainly take up amides, additional carbon is required from glycolysis and the tricarbonic-acid cycle to fuel adequate amino acid synthesis. Ammonia-nitrogen released by de-amination of amides is used to build up other amino acids. The carbon key acceptors are oxalacetate and a-ketoglutarate, for the synthesis of the aspartate and glutamate family members respectively. Increased uptake of amino acids by AAP-overexpression may increase carbon demand and potentially leads to source limitation of carbon. This is in accordance with lower starch and sucrose concentrations in mature AAPl-pea seeds and is further supported by transcriptional profiling, where amino acid synthesis is only moderately stimulated compared to the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)-overexpres-sing seeds (Radchuk et al. 2007), or to AGP-repressed seeds. However, transcrip-tional changes give evidence for the hypothesis that increasing the N to C ratio, due to AAP1-overexpression, leads to...

Why Involve People

The second objective relates to the intangible benefits, in particular 'transformative' outcomes, which refer to social change. A main motive in this context is often called 'sense of ownership' or related terms (e.g., Crouch 1994 Greenhalgh and Worpole 1995 Aygeman 1996 Agate 1998). A study in England (Mostyn 1979) showed that almost everybody who had been involved in community schemes talked about the local natural area as 'my valley', 'my trees' and 'our place'. The people saw the fact that they had been involved in planting trees on the site as being symbolic of 'putting down roots'. When people feel that, due to their own input and efforts, they 'own' a line of street trees, a public park, a local woodland or a green neighborhood, then it will become an element of their daily life and surroundings for which it is worth struggling to retain and develop. This sense of ownership is very often apparent in a reduction in the degree of vandalism directed at urban trees and other...

Structural MAPs

To date, nine MAP-65 proteins have been identified or predicted in Arabidopsis, three in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells, and three in carrot suspension cells (Hussey et al. 2002). These proteins share homology to human PRC1 and yeast Ase1p, both of which contribute to the formation and integrity of antiparallel midzone MTs via crosslinking and stabilization (Mol-linari et al. 2002 Schuyler et al. 2003 Zhu and Jiang 2005). In plants, several members of the MAP-65 family have also been localized at the midzone, suggesting they share a similar function (Muller et al. 2004 Chang et al. 2005 Mao et al. 2005). Several other members localize to the cortical arrays, where they have been implicated in MT bundling (Van Damme et al. 2004b Mao et al. 2005) indeed, purified carrot MAP-65 bundles MTs in vitro, forming 20-25 nm crossbridges between MTs (Chan et al. 1999). In the case of AtMAP65-4, localization to the spindle is observed, but midzone enrichment is not seen (Van Damme et al....

Biosynthesis Pathway

ACS is encoded by a gene family containing 12 members (ACS1 and ACS2 of Van Der Straeten et al. 1992 are named ACS2 and ACS4 respectively by Ya-magami et al. 2003). Ten of the 12 family members encode ACS isozymes of these ACS1 and ACS3 are not biologically active, and ACS10 and ACS12 function as aminotransferases. It has been proven that ACS is encoded by a multigene family in other plants too (for a review, see Vandenbussche et al. 2006). The catalytic activity of ACS results in not only ACC but also 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA). MTA is recycled to methionine in the Yang cycle (Miyazaki and Yang 1987). ACS is the main enzyme that controls the synthesis of ethylene and is, in turn, controlled by multiple signals. We will discuss these signal interactions in the next paragraphs.

Acknowledgement

The abundant affection and immense support of my wife Mrs. N. Rajakumari, made it possible to devote my undivided attention for the preparation of this book. To all my family members Mr. N. Kumar Perumal, Mrs. Nirmala Suresh, Mr. T. R. Suresh and Mr. Varun Karthik, I am glad to express my thanks for their affectionate encouragement to heighten the level of my involvement in academic endeavors.

Genomic approaches

Since forward genetics relies on a phenotype arising from a single gene mutation, it is likely that a large number of genes may not be easily characterised using this approach. In order to identify functions for these genes, we need to develop a more sophisticated genetic toolkit for both forward and reverse genetic screens. Overexpression of natural or altered proteins can provide insights into families of genes that are collectively essential. A straightforward approach, albeit laborious, resembles strategic breeding and weds reverse and forward genetics. In this approach, the genome sequence is used to locate protein family members. Knockout mutations are found for all the genes in a family and the lines are crossed so that one plant contains knockout alleles of all the members of the gene family, creating a more robust phenotype. This strategic approach can lead to increased understanding of the functions of genes that exist in gene families, and is not possible without the entire...

Other Genes

Cell proliferation in cultured calli is also affected. RPD1 seems to be a plant-specific protein containing a winged-helix fold similar to that present in the DNA binding domain of the E2F family members, although the molecular basis for its function is not known.

The Zip Family

Taylor and Nicholson, 2003) and zebrafish (Yamashita et al., 2004). Various members of the ZIP family have been shown to transport iron, manganese, zinc, copper and cadmium. All ZIP proteins are predicted to be integral membrane proteins most family members are predicted to have eight transmembrane domains with a variable region between transmembrane domains III and IV (Eng et al., 1998 Guerinot, 2000). The variable region is often histidine-rich and has been shown to localize to the cytoplasm in yeast (Gitan and Eide, 2000) and in humans (Gaither and Eide, 2000 Gaither and Eide, 2001). Where characterized, ZIP proteins have been found to transport metal ions from the cell exterior or lumen of intracellular organelles into the cytoplasm. The sole exception is GmZIP1 which has been localized to the peribacteroid membrane of soybean nodules (Moreau et al., 2002). Antibodies to GmZIP1 inhibited zinc uptake by symbiosomes, suggesting that this protein is responsible for transporting metal...

Nepenthes

Although there are many variations in the pitchers, in size, shape, coloration, with modifications of mouth as well, all nepenthes bear a strong family resemblance. The pitchers are developed at the end of the tendril. Some tendrils may be short, others a foot or more in length. The pitchers also vary in size, from an inch or so to over a foot long. On individual plants you can find several sizes of pitchers in various stages of growth and maturity. In this respect they are much like the New World pitcher plants that sprout pitchers in continuing growth cycles to replace older ones which mature, dry, and die.

Aquaporins

This large ubiquitous protein family has been shown to transport manganese and iron, but some family members are also involved in transport of nickel, zinc, copper, cobalt, and cadmium. Four of the six natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) genes have been functionally characterized in Arabidopsis and only AtNRAMP1 was localized to the PM (Cailliatte et al. 2010). AtNRAMP1 encodes a high-affinity uptake system to acquire Mn from the soil under Mn deficiency conditions. The Atnramp1-1 mutant shows limited growth, reduced Mn levels, and fails to take up Mn under limiting Mn concentrations. Consistent with its function in Mn acquisition from the soil, NRAMP1 expression is restricted to the root and stimulated by Mn deficiency. NRAMP1 also restores the iron and cobalt uptake capacity of irt1 mutants, indicating that NRAMP1 has a broad transport substrate range.

Esophagitis

GERD has been shown to affect overall oral health. One study showed that children with GERD have increased dental erosion, salivary yeast, and salivary Mutans streptococci compared with healthy children.32 In addition, research indicates that children with GERD have more dental caries and more severe erosion compared with healthy children.33

Prostrate Spurge

Spine, the plant oozes white milky sap.) But don't feed this milk to your kids or your pets because it is quite toxic. The technical term for it is latex, and if you have latex allergies, your body is unusually well primed to protest contact with the natural plant version of the stuff. In that case, definitely don't eat your poinsettia.

Orchids

Orchidaceae owe their numerical superiority among epiphytes to an exceptionally propitious set of vegetative and reproductive features, including pollen conveyance by specialized insects lured by novel floral syndromes (Benzing and Atwood 1984). Vegetative mechanisms vary tremendously according to the taxon's native substratum and microclimate (Table 8.7), but there are several important attributes common to all canopy-adapted family members that, in some form, predisposed early stock for arboreal life. The specialized roots of epiphytic orchids vary in photosynthetic performance and water balance, depending on structure and metabolism uptake is enhanced in all cases by a nonliving velamen (Fig. 3.19) which imbibes precipitation containing solutes for subsequent sorption through transfer cells in an underlying exodermis. This same mantle effectively retards desiccation. Hyperovulate gynoecia and aggregated pollen characterize most of the family. Microspermy - up to millions of tiny,...

How to Use This Book

Scientific names, composed from Latin or Greek roots, have three parts. The first part, the genus name, corresponds roughly to your family name. The second part, the species name, is equivalent to your first, or given, name. Just as your given name distinguishes you from other members of your immediate family, so the species distinguishes a plant from every other species in the genus. The third part of every plant name is the authority the surname of the botanist who first described the plant as a new species. If later botanists transfer the species into a different genus, their names become part of the authority, too. Often these surnames are abbreviated.

Degradation

During the past decade, multistep histidine-to-aspartate (His-to-Asp) phosphorelay has emerged as a mechanism plants employ to perceive and transmit the cytokinin signal. Amongst the potential His-Asp phosphorelay components in Arabidopsis implicated in cytokinin signaling are three histidine kinases (HKs), six histidine-containing phosphotransfer factors (HPs), and 23 response regulators (RRs). The Arabidopsis RR (ARR) gene family members are further classified into three subtypes based on the structural designs and functions of encoded proteins, specifically, ten type-A RRs, 11 type-B RRs, and two type-C RRs (Mizuno 2005 Miiller and Sheen 2007 To and Kieber 2008).

Pyrpylrcar Proteins

After a long search for unequivocal ABA receptors, two independent research groups identified the same ABA receptor family using different approaches. In a thorough chemical screening, Cutler's group found compound pyrabactin which was able to inhibit specifically seed germination (Park et al. 2009). Microarray analysis of the ABA and pyrabactin responses in seeds revealed that both compounds induce very similar transcrip-tional changes, unlike other unrelated germination inhibitors. After isolation of pyrabactin-resistant mutant, PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1 (PYR1) gene was identified. In Arabidopsis, 13 related genes were determined, which were named PYL1 -13 (PYR-like). The other group utilized the fact that PP2C ABI2 is an important negative regulator of ABA signaling. In yeast two-hybrid screening of ABI2 interacting partners, Grill's group found an interacting protein, which was named Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor 1 (RCAR1) (Ma et al. 2009). They identified 13 other family...

NFkB Proteins

The Rel NF-KB proteins are a family of highly conserved transcription factors that control expression of genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in both mammals and insects (Dutta et al. 2006 Hayden et al. 2006 Karin 2006 Silverman and Maniatis 2001). NF-kB proteins share a highly conserved 300-amino-acid N-terminal domain called the Rel-homology domain (RHD) which mediates DNA binding, dimerization and interaction with inhibitory IkB proteins. The RHD may also contain motifs for nuclear localization and transactivation (Perkins et al. 1997 Schmitz et al. 1995). NF-kB proteins are retained in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells by the inhibitory IkB proteins. In response to immune challenge, IkB proteins are degraded, releasing the NF-kB transcription factors, which then translocate to the nucleus to activate target gene expression. In mammals, NF-kB family members include RelA (p65), RelB, c-Rel, p50 p105 (NF-kB1), and p52 p100...

Conclusions

One obvious conclusion made from the examination of Table 1 is that there is tremendous diversity in the gene family members and enzyme types that act as PPI 5-phosphatases. This diversity may reflect specialization of a limited number of 5PTases in a simple eukaryotic ancestor, to a larger number of tissue-specific and or developmentally-regulated genes that might be required in plants. An alternative but not mutually exclusive source of diversity is that each PPI phosphatase functions solely to hydrolyze a specific substrate or a specific set of substrates. A second conclusion can be drawn about recent data reported for 4-phosphatases. There appears to be a lack of conservation of these enzymes at the amino acid level, and thus, we are just beginning to understand how removal of 4-phosphates may impact plant physiology. Examination of Fig. 1 indicates that other potential 4-phosphatases could hydrolyze PtdIns(4,5)P2, producing PtdIns5P, an interesting and sometimes nuclear...

L Introduction

Eradication of infectious agents represents an essential barrier function for the survival of all mammals. Infected host mammalian cells elicit multiple defense programs, which can be broadly separated into innate and adaptive immune response. During first days of infection, microbial sensing is conferred by extra-and intra-cellular detection of so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by specialized innate immune sensors, also called pathogen-recognition molecules (PRMs Medzhitov 2001). In mammals, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members are bona fide membrane-bound PRMs that contain leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in their ectodomains for PAMP recognition outside of the cell, at the cell surface, or on the luminal side of intracellular vesicular compartments (Barton and Medzhitov 2003 Akira et al. 2006). In contrast to TLRs, the family of cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (so-called NLRs) provides a...

Signaling Pathways

T-DNA-mediated activation tagging screens of transgenic C. plantagineum callus leading to the creation of dominant mutants has led to the discovery of calli, which are capable of surviving desiccation without prior ABA treatment (Furini et al. 1997 Smith-Espinoza et al. 2005). The genes targeted by the T-DNA include two Craterostigma desiccation-tolerant (CDT) gene family members that encode naturally occurring siRNA molecules with features of a short interspersed element retrotransposon (SINE) that likely plays important roles in ABA signal transduction, because both activation mutant lines exhibit increased expression of ABA-induced LEA proteins (Phillips et al. 2007 Hilbricht et al. 2008). However, their involvement in ABA-independent DT pathways cannot be excluded (Furini et al. 1997 Smith-Espinoza et al. 2005).

Single Parenting

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