Extremely Cold Ebook
After a decade of intensive research, the reasons for polar ozone loss have become reasonably clear. It is certain now that ozone is depleted by reactions involving chlorine and bromine compounds, present in the atmosphere following a variety of anthropogenic activities. In the troposphere the chlorine and bromine are held in stable compounds, the chlo-rofluorocarbons and halons. In the stratosphere these compounds can be dissociated. The majority of the chlorine and bromine is then transformed into other compounds ('reservoirs') which themselves do not destroy ozone. However, it is now known that reactions on surfaces can turn these reservoirs (for example, HC1 and C10N02) into active forms (such as CI and CIO) which, in the presence of sunlight, do destroy ozone. The polar lower stratosphere provides the conditions for these processes to occur. During winter, a strong westerly circumpolar flow (the polar vortex) is established. Within the polar vortex temperatures become very low...
Leucostoma canker or Cytospora canker (F Leucostoma per-soonii) affects peaches, nectarines, and sweet cherries and is especially severe in regions where trees may be damaged by cold winter temperatures. Cankers on older wood are usually elliptical, blackened, and gummy. Conidia are produced in cankers throughout the year. Infections occur only through wounds, dead tissue, or injuries (including sunburn and cold injury). The disease can be avoided by
Botanists have a term for stiff, leathery leaves like these. It is sclerophyl-lous, which means hard-leaved. Generally, it is the shrubs and trees of chaparral that are sclerophyllous. Desert plants typically possess soft, pliable leaves that simply fall off when the soil dries out or when winter temperatures plummet. In chaparral, where moisture is less erratic than in desert, shrubs tend to keep their leaves year-round. This means that the leaves must be adapted to endure cold winters and dry summers, a combination best achieved by a hard, leathery texture. The small white flowers, clustered at the branch tips, bloom from March to September. They are avidly sought by bees, wasps, but-t rf j s and b66tl s.
Temperature is a major factor controlling the geographical distribution of plants, affecting plants via both the temperatures of the growing season (e.g., Dahl 1951) and the cold winter period (Sakai and Larcher 1987). For example, the Arctic treeline coincides approximately with the +10 C isotherm of the mean temperature
An ama mg plant with a m* dicum of cold tolerance and even greater heat tolerance (to Key West, Honda, in Zone II). The habit is densely pyramidal with a rotund base and vertically arranged sprays of foliage. The rich grass-green leaves will discolor in cold weather Like the previous species, it Is ideal (or miserable soils and tan be utilized for a wide range of landscape needs. Grows H to 25 ft, high, 10 to IS ft wide. Zones (5)6 to 10M t). Korea, northern and northeastern China.
Ecology As an important range plant, Timothy grass has been introduced over much of temperate North America, where it has often escaped cultivation and become established in fields, roadsides, and other open habitats. A prolific seed producer, it rapidly colonizes disturbed areas. Once established, Timothy grass stores carbohydrates and other products of photosynthesis in the base of swollen stems and in corms. These nutrient reserves are important to winter survival, to the initiation of early spring growth, and in the production of replacement tillers (shoots) following defoliation by grazers. Grasses, like other wind-pollinated plants, produce enormous amounts of pollen as a mechanism to facilitate successful pollination. A meadow dominated by Timothy grass, for example, can disperse over 1 billion pollen grains in just 2 weeks. Unfortunately, pollen produced by this grass is a common cause of hay fever. No matter how long a naturalized plant such as Timothy grass persists in an...
Low winter temperatures are a major limiting factor in the production of temperate tree fruit crops. Economic losses can occur as a direct result of severe midwinter temperatures or untimely fall or spring frosts. For these reasons, cold hardiness is often a selection criterion in breeding programs, and several research programs have placed a primary emphasis on elucidating the mechanisms of freezing injury and winter survival of fruit crops. This chapter attempts to provide a brief overview of the subject and to discuss various strategies that are currently being used to study freezing injury and winter survival.
A prediction of the effects of an increase in climate-effective trace gases (C02, N20, CH4 and others) is only possible using model calculations based on certain scenarios of their increase (see Fig. 5.3.6A) and by coupling land, ocean and atmosphere processes to develop understanding of how the climate develops and changes. For Europe, such a model calculation (Parry 2000) has been made with the lower limit of C02 increase assumed to be 490 ppm and the upper limit to be 570 ppm in 2100. Since 1970 Europe has warmed up between 0.1 and 0.4 K per decade. It has been shown that the probability of a cold winter (one in 10 years) in northern Scandinavia would decrease to 0 by 2080. At the same time, the probability of a warm summer in northern and central Europe will decrease. However, the probability of a hot summer will increase in southern Europe. These temperature predictions show an increased effect of the Gulf Stream on Europe, with a change in precipitation as an immediate...
The physiology of flowering in pineapple is covered elsewhere (see Bartholomew et al., Chapter 8, this volume). However, certain aspects of the implications and occurrence of natural differentiation are discussed below. Pineapples flower naturally under certain conditions and these conditions vary somewhat in different parts of the world. However, natural flowering may be generally classified as winter or short-day-length-, cold-weather-induced flowering, and summer or dry-weather-induced flowering. Other stress factors, such as root damage from pathogens or waterlogged soils, may also induce flowering.
This is the highest, wettest, windiest and coldest of all the belts in which full-size trees can grow In contrast to the fir-aspen belt immediately below, the trees of this belt are usually smaller, occupying streambanks and meadow edges growing in tight clumps of several mature trees surrounded by younger saplings or are found in more open locations. Here the heaviest snowfall of any of the mountain belts is encountered in fact, twice as much snow falls here as in the fir-aspen belt below. Because of this, most of the Southwest's ski areas are located on these parts of the mountains in order to take advantage of the deep, powdery snow. Annual precipitation is 30 to 90, or more, inches.
Sharply pointed at apex, wedge-shaped at base with dense brown scales on the underside. The leaves curl up and hang down during times of drought and extreme cold. Flowers pink to white, often spotted with green, in terminal clusters. Fruit a 5-parted capsule. Flowers Apr.-June fruits Sept.-Oct.
Control of dormancy is very important for the commercial production of grape and other temperate crops (Saure 1985). In cold winter regions, early release from ED may contribute to low-temperature injury crop losses are common and frost-protection measures represent a major production cost (Cattivelli and Bartlet 1992, Kadir and Proebsting 1994). Therefore, varieties need to be identified or bred for these regions that resume growth only under favorable conditions, to avoid plant damage and reduction in yield.
Bearberry Cotoneaster has achieved celebrity status In landscapes in recent decades. In northern gardens, the leaves are usually persistent, unless winter temperatures drop below - 10 R The initial growth habit is relatively prostrate branches build up. however, layer upon layer, resulting in a Sizable plant. The yA- to l -in,-long leaves are lustrous dark green, turning reddish purple with the coming of cold weather. The ' i- to Vi-in.-diameter, five-petaied, white flowers appear in profusion during May, followed by globose to top-shaped, in.-diameter, red fruit. Fruit set is often sparse. Adaptable and extremely fast growing, it is a popular choice for quick cover, lends to become ratty with time and requires pruning to maintain neatness, l ireblight, a bacterial disease, and lace bugr which causes a yellowing of the Leaves, may tx problematic. Grows 1 to 1 ' 2 ft. high, 6 fi. wide or more. Zones 5 to 8. Central China.
Cultivated throughout India while some grow wild on the coasts of Bombay, Gujarat, southern Arabia, Madagascar and areas surrounding the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea (Morton, 1961 Kapoor, 1990). At the present time the principal areas for production of aloes are South Africa, Venezuela, Haiti, Florida and the Dutch islands of Aruba and Bonaire. The plant grows very well if adequately protected from cold weather aloes are injured at 2 C and generally killed at 1 C.
Soldiers in military campaigns staged during cold winters have a high propensity to develop frostbite and mountain climbers and explorers are also prone to frostbite injuries (Boswick etal, 1979 Grindlay and Reynolds, 1986 Kulka, 1961 Lange and Loewe, 1946 McCauley etal., 1990). As alluded to earlier, frostbite injury, unlike thermal injury, is more common in people who do not cover themselves appropriately. With the appropriate clothing and accessories, these injuries can be prevented. Some of the risk factors described in the literature include impairment as a result of alcohol, drugs, or other substances, (Klein and Penneys, 1988 Knize, 1977), thereby making the individual unable to clothe themselves adequately. Mental instability has also led to cold-related injury (Klein and Penneys, 1988). Military studies, in addition, have shown that darker colored soldiers are more likely to suffer cold injury in comparison to their white counterparts in similar conditions (Whayne and...
NodE and NodF determine which acyl chain(s) are added to the core Nod factor structure by NodA. NodF is an acyl carrier protein, whilst NodE is a b-ketoacyl synthase implicated in determining the degree of acyl chain saturation (Bloemberg et al. 1995a Debelle and Sharma 1986 Geiger et al. 1991 Ritsema et al. 1997 van der Drift et al. 1996). In R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, NodE activity leads to the production of a Nod factor with a polyunsaturated C18 4 acyl chain. Inactivation of this gene instead results in the incorporation of vaccenic acid, an unsaturated C18 1 acyl chain (Spaink et al. 1991), and subsequently renders the strain unable to nodulate Vicia sativa (Canter Cremers et al. 1989). Deletion of S. meliloti nodF yields Nod factors with similar acyl chain compositions to those obtained from nodE deletion mutants, suggesting that the combined action of NodE and NodF is required for appropriate acyl chain addition (Demont et al. 1993). Indeed, exchanging the nodEF genes of S....
Seasonality or periodicity of growth and reproduction is typical for plants of temperate zones because during the cold winter, soil water freezes and becomes unavailable for plant roots. In tropical environments periodic dry seasons can cause seasonal variation in plant growth, but even without a definite dry season some plants express seasonal phenological patterns because of the periodic appearance of pollinators, animal dispersers, or herbivores. Given that ferns do not interact with pollinators or specialized dispersers (Barrington, 1993), it had been assumed that they would have an aseasonal phenology (Tryon, 1960). Most recent phenological studies of tropical ferns, however, have shown predominantly seasonal patterns (Table 8.1), similar to those of woody angiosperms. In tropical deciduous forests, woody angiosperms are leafless during the dry season and produce a flush of leaves at the end of this period (Rivera et al., 2002) or during the wet season (Lieberman and Lieberman,...
The scope of the possible effects of global warming is hard to forecast accurately, but some examples may provide a glimpse of potential outcomes. The current distribution of plant species is determined in large part by their climatic requirements. Boreal forest, or taiga, circles the Earth just below the arctic circle. Its coniferous trees require cold winters and mild summers, with moderate but not excessive rainfall. As surface temperatures rise, as much as 40 percent of the world's boreal forests could be lost, according to estimates published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. At the same time, deserts and other arid lands may experience more water stress, increasing the rate of desertification in these regions. In contrast, some areas will become milder and wetter. All of these changes will shift plant geographic distribution, and with this, alter wildlife and plant predator distributions.
Like other fruit trees, peach trees need a period of cold weather rest or dormancy. The number of hours of cold between 32 and 45 Feach cultivar needs before it breaks dormancy is referred to as chill hours. (Cold below 32 F doesn't count toward meeting the dormancy requirement.) Once the number is reached, the tree assumes winter is over and starts growing the next warm day. Peaches bloom rapidly once their requirement has been met, which makes them more prone to frost damage than other fruit trees that are slower to burst into bloom. Call your local extension service to find out how many chill hours your area receives and what cultivars match that requirement. If you choose a cultivar that needs fewer chill hours than you normally receive, an unseasonable winter thaw in your area may bring the tree well into flower weeks before spring actually arrives. But if you choose one that needs more chill hours than your climate supplies, the tree won't get enough chilling to stimulate normal...
For iruli display in the winter gar* den, few plants risjJ pyracan I has. Framed hy the dark leaves, or nestled among them, the hrlght orange red fruit provide spectacular la 11 and winter color iy pic ally, hitthorn is a Urge, unkempt and splaying evergreen shrub with stiff, thorny hranches. The 1- to 2' ln.-long, lustrous dark green leaves may develop bronzy off-green colors in extremely cold weather. Slightly malodorous white flowers smother the plant in May and June. The fruit ripen in September and October and persist inlo winter. Transplant from a container into any well-drained soil. lVracanthas are amazingly adaptable and make good choices for dry soils rhey require full sun for best hulling but will do well in partial shade. Many uses. Including harrier, mass, hedge, and espalier. Select cold-hardy cultivars, Grows 6 tii IK it high and wide. Zones iMh to K. Italy to ( aucatus
The surface albedo for fresh snow demonstrates no spectral variations and the value is about A (A) const 0.95. Nevertheless if the snow and ice intermingle with water, the surface albedo perceives certain features specific for the water surface but with linear spectral dependence. In cloudy conditions all the features of the albedo spectral dependence preserve.
Selection criteria referred to in this paper should be adopted in selection programs, to suit the different uses of trees in urban conditions. The main selection criteria are climatic adaptation (growth rhythm, adaptation to high and low temperatures, winter survival and tolerance of water stress), growth and exterior characters, incorporation of functional properties (plants for shade, wind shelter, playground elements, aesthetic elements, etc.) and resistance against pests and diseases.
This herb originally introduced from South America is now cultivated throughout India. Of the cultivated species in India this is perhaps the most common and the largest. It is grown in cold weather in light sandy soil in most parts of the country, especially in Bengal, Orissa and Madras. The fruit when dry is bright red. These fruits are collected in large quantities, dried in the sun, and made ready for marketing.
Cell grown seedlings can be transplanted at almost any time of the year provided soil moisture is adequate or irrigation is available. In practice, spring is preferable as it avoids the cold weather and frost risk of winter and the very wet soils and possible heat waves of summer and autumn.
Botanical responses to recent climate amelioration are already visible in the maritime and sub-Antarctic, in the form of rapid local expansion of populations of flowering plants, comparable changes in bryophytes, and rapid colonisation of ground recently exposed by snow and ice recession. These changes facilitate and are rapidly followed by the development of typical terrestrial invertebrate communities. The results of field manipulations mimicking predicted levels of thermal amelioration generally confirm these patterns of response, as well as highlighting the importance of propagule banks in the soil in accelerating the processes of establishment and community development.
Bergenias are sturdy, low-growing border plants with rose-pink flower clusters borne above the foliage in early spring. Broad, glossy leaves are 10 long and heart-shaped in the case of heartleaf bergenia (Bergenia cordi-folia), oval in the case of leather bergenia (B. crassifolia). The foliage takes on a dark burgundy color in fall leaves are evergreen but often damaged by cold weather. Space plants l'-l'A' apart in average, well-drained soil in a partially shaded spot.
Roots have been shown to be less tolerant of cold or heat than the aboveground parts. They have been damaged by exposure to low temperatures during the dormant season, temperatures, which do not damage fully hardened tops (Tinus 1982). Hence in cold climates the containers must be protected from extreme cold during winter.
Doors in nursery beds their dormancy requirements will be satisfied in the moist soil and the cold winter temperatures. If this approach is used, it is important to test the viability of the seed lot that is being planted. This can be done using embryo excision or using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. These tests allow seed viability to be ascertained in a very short time period. Knowing the seed viability is important if a good stand of seedlings is to be expected in the following spring.
Winter survival of woody perennials, including temperate tree fruit crops, is dependent on two phenological events (1) the onset of dormancy during fall and (2) an ability to increase freeze tolerance upon exposure to low nonfreezing temperatures (e.g., a change from a freeze-susceptible to a freeze-resistant state a process called cold acclimation). Once plants are in a dormant state, an exposure to a chilling period is required for floral and vegetative budbreak in the following spring. Chilling requirement prevents growth from occurring during periodic warm spells during winter and thus helps synchronize plant growth with the prevalence of favorable environmental conditions. Cold acclimation (CA), on the other hand, enables plants to survive the subfreezing temperatures present during winter. Due to the process of cold acclimation, woody plant tissues that would be killed by temperatures slightly below 0 C during summer and early fall may survive temperatures as low as -70 C during...
Truly a superb groundcovor for dry, sandy soils and areas where salinity poses a problem. The rich blue-green, prickly, V*- to V*-in.-long needles lose some of their sheen in cold weather. Ihe silvery, ' V to ln.-diameter Cones are attractive throughout the year. Grows 1 to iV ft, high, 6 to 9 ft. wide, ones (5)6 to Japan, Cultivars and Varieties. Blue Pacific' has superseded the species in many areas of the United States because of its more compact ha hit and suj erior foliage. The rich, ocean blue-green needles are shorter and more densely borne than those of the species, and they do not discolor in cold weather to the degree of those of the species. Usually grows less lhan ft high.
Peonies prefer full sun and moist, well-drained, richly organic soil, although light shade is tolerated and may prolong bloom in the South. A protected site limits wind damage to blossoms. Most are hardy to Zone 5 and do best in cold-winter climates. Most poppies are very hardy and perform best in cool summers and cold winters grow plants as annuals in warmer climates. Full sun to light shade and well-drained soil satisfy poppies' needs established plants tolerate some drought, but soggy soil guarantees rotting of fleshy roots. Foliage dies back after flowering ends, and plants disappear by late summer. Mark the spot to avoid digging injury to roots. New leaves appear in fall. Divide every 5 years, in late summer, to maintain vigor. Poppies self-sow if allowed to set seed seedlings may not come true to parents.
At one time, I thought this species would become a popular Landscape plant because of its sho sy red iruil, rich silver-gray stems, and tolerance to dry, alkaline soils, I In fortunately the lack of hardiness to extreme cold and the fact that the fruit may drop or discolor, plus the immense si e and suckering habit of the plant, limit landscape uses, 1 he large specimens that I have observed in Oklahoma, Missouri, Georgia, and Washington. IK all 20 to 30 ftr high and wide, strongly suckering, and untidy are what stick tn my mind for this species, The to ' i-in.-diameier, rounded, red fruit, which color while the leaves are still green, ripen in September arul persist until the following April, although they may look ragged. The I Vi- to S in -long, lustrous dark green leaves hold late, into November, and often mask the fruit effect. Possumhaw withstands dTY, alkaline, as well as moist, soils, Requires full sun for best fruit set. Use only in large areas. Might be a good plant for...
Normally, mango seedlings require 3-10 years to flower, thereby prolonging the breeding programme. Grafting individual hybrids on the proper rootstocks at the earliest possible stage and growing them in a location where climatic stress (particularly cold weather) prevails, induces precocious
Ecology Skunk cabbage gives off a skunk-like odor when any part of the plant is bruised or damaged. The odor is beneficial because herbivores learn to associate the plant's odor with the sharply pointed crystals of calcium oxalate that irritate their mouths if the plant is chewed on. A strong odor also helps lure potential pollinators to the tiny flowers. One of the first plants to flower in winter, skunk cabbage develops spathes that can emerge through snow. The plant has the rare characteristic of being able to regulate flower temperature by producing its own heat. On cold winter days, when
Grasslands can be broadly categorized as temperate or tropical. Temperate grasslands have cold winters and warm-to-hot summers and often have deep fertile soils. Surprisingly, plant growth in temperate grasslands is often nutrient limited because much of the soil nitrogen is stored in forms unavailable for plant uptake. These nutrients, however, are made available to plants when plowing disrupts the structure of the soil. The combination of high soil fertility and relatively gentle topography made grasslands ideal candidates for conversion to crop production. Grasslands in the Midwestern United States that receive the most rainfall (75 to 90 centimeters) and are the most productive are termed tallgrass prairies. Historically, these prairies were most abundant in Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, and Kansas. The driest grasslands (25 to 35 centimeters of rainfall) and least productive are termed shortgrass prairies or steppes. These grasslands are common in Texas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New...
Second year lavandin cultivars produced essential oil contents of 7.10-9.9 per cent, an overall 0.35 per cent increase from year one. Camphor contents in the lavandins remained about the same and averaged 3.5-8.1 per cent. Lavandins 'Grosso' and 'Super' produced the highest oils (9.9 and 8.7 per cent, respectively), but only 'Super' exhibited 100 per cent winter survival under our harsh winter conditions and exhibited a 100 per cent bloom among all its plants. 'Super' also rated very high on plant vigour and uniformity. Lavender cultivars produced 1-2 per cent essential oil, with an average yield of 3.55 per cent, only a minor increase of 0.76 per cent from year one. Although lavenders 'Grey Lady' and 'Hidcote' produced high quantities of oil (5 and 3.50 per cent, respectively), 'Alba' and 'Munstead' performed best relative to plant vigour, uniformity. Relative to dried floral quality, 'Hidcote', 'Alba', and 'Munstead' were quite promising.
In cold-winter areas, where there is a danger of soil freezing for long periods, planting stock is often kept over winter in refrigerated storehouses so that its availability for spring planting can be synchronized with soil conditions. Frequently the stock is subjugated to a short-daylight regime during late summer (late July to early August) in order to encourage the plants to stop shoot growth and to induce greater frost hardiness (Sandvik 1980 Tremblay and Lalonde 1987 Bigras and D'Aoust 1993).
A true spreading groundcover type with blue-greent phi me ike, soft-textured foliage. The cultivars of this species consistently des elop mauve to deep purple colors in cold weather, and this is a good way to distinguish C reeping Juniper from the other groundcover junipers. Ptnmopsis blight can be more troublesome on this group. Grows