Learn How To Use Essential Oils

Learn How To Use Essential Oils

These aromatherapy eBooks are good for beginners and folks who just wanna make stuff. They cover some basic essential oil education, but they focus most on recipes and blending. They're written to help you play and experiment and learn how to use essential oils in your every day life. Learn how to make more than 40 natural home remedies & recipes using Lavender, Lemon, Oregano, Peppermint & Tea Tree. Over 70 Instant Tips to get started right away. Read more here...

Learn How To Use Essential Oils Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Format: Ebook
Official Website: www.easy-aromatherapy-recipes.com
Price: $6.97

Access Now

My Learn How To Use Essential Oils Review

Highly Recommended

This ebook comes with the great features it has and offers you a totally simple steps explaining everything in detail with a very understandable language for all those who are interested.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

Lavender oil and its use in aromatherapy 183 Scientific verification for EO therapeutic effects

It remains to be seen whether aromatherapy has any actual medicinal benefits (Vickers, 1996 Nelson, 1997) other than stress-alleviating, through massage, and whether these are attributable only to massage with the true EOs, especially as there is a wide difference in the actual percentage chemical composition of EOs obtained from different geographical sources and also different samples from plants grown in various countries where differences in hybridization has occurred and even the same plants grown under different climatic conditions show differences (Lis-Balchin, 1997). The commercial EOs are also often admixed, adulterated with other EOs from different plants and mixed with synthetics, which all add to differences in bioactivity (Lis-Balchin et al, 1998). Of the known effects of EOs, there are few examples of direct 'aromatherapy', that is, true effects due to 'aroma' rather than due to the chemical nature of the EO. Most of the work on true 'aromatherapy' has been undertaken by...

Use of Essential Oils

Essential oils are valuable antiseptics with bioactivity against human pathogens. There are two ways of using the niaouli essential oils Essential oils have a high antiseptic capacity. Niaouli oil is mainly used for pulmonary infections especially for colds and bronchitis. The oil can be absorbed as a tea drink (decoction by boiling water with dried leaves), or by inhalation (three drops of commercial oil in steaming water).

Physicochemical characteristics of the essential oils from cymbopogons

Physical and chemical properties of any essential oil are of prime importance, and chemists are now working in an era when highly sophisticated instruments are available for quality and quantity analysis. Still, the specific gravity, optical rotation, solubility in dilute alcohol, and the refractive index must be determined for all oils and liquid isolates. Before the availability of modern analytical techniques, the essential oil chemists were working using their ingenuity, a highly developed sense of smell and taste, and analytical ability. Besides the determination of physical and chemical properties, other tests have also been carried out, such as ester content, total alcohol determination, congealing point, and melting points in the case of solids, which is of great importance. The reported values of these constants for the essential oils of Cymbopogon species are shown in Table 2.1, which is self-explanatory. This chapter will cater to the needs of students besides researchers...

Coldpress Extraction Of Essential Oils

Heated Rolers Press For Oil Extraction

Rodano (1930) identified three distinct types of phenomena that occur during the cold-press extraction of essential oils from citrus fruit In his famous book on essential oils, Guenther (1949) wrote that the Avena extractor (Figure 8.6) 'today represents a most efficient and attractive machine of general application'. The ideal term of comparison for all the machines that extract essential oils from peel is the manual technique of the sponge (sfumatura). In fact even the best machinery is not able to produce oil of a quality which even remotely approaches that produced manually. At best, as Cultrera (1954) put it, we descend 'from the noble to the merely good'. It seems therefore appropriate briefly to describe this method.

Factors Which Influence The Quality Of Essential Oils

The quality of citrus essential oils obviously depends to a large extent on factors deriving from the nature of the fruit itself (provenance, type of soil, climate, citrus variety), but the processing of the fruit also has a significant effect. The physical properties of essential oils can be dependent at a certain stage, on the fruit varieties used, on their maturity and on the storage time that proceeds the industrial transformation. Some information, regarding the variation that can occur in essential oils for these factors will be found in the chapters of this volume where the composition of the volatile fraction and the oxygen heterocyclic fraction of cold-pressed oils are described.

Problems arising in aromatherapy studies

More clinical and toxicological research is needed, in order to extend the use of aromatherapy. From the toxicological aspect, there is the danger of causing dermatitis in sensitive people (Rudzki et al., 1976) lavender oil is not implicated greatly, but there was a report of occupational allergy to a lavender shampoo used by a female hairdresser (Brandao, 1986). The hairdresser had allergy problems on her hands due to a variety of products, but reacted more strongly to a lavender shampoo and lavender oil itself. Menard (1961) reported a similar case, but this time the hairdresser was allergic to the eau de Cologne containing lavender, rather than to the lavender alone. Patch tests have shown a few allergies due to photosensitization and also pigmentation was reported (Brandao, 1986 Nakayama et al., 1976). Future clinical application of aromatherapy What could be achieved by using aromatherapy as an adjunct to clinical medicine especially in hospitals and general practice So far there...

Investigations of Lavandula essential oils

Triebs (1956) and Sticher (1977) have reviewed the results from early experiments on some of the constituents of lavender, which is one of the oils reviewed by Tisserand and Balacs (1995) in their guide on the safety of essential oils. Macht and Ting (1921) trained rats to negotiate a maze to find food and then determined the effect of exposure to the vapour from essential oils on the time taken to reach the food and the number of errors occurring. Most of their experiments were on valerian and various incense, but three rats were exposed to a tincture of lavender and in each case the time to reach the food doubled, with two animals also making errors in the maze. From these results is was concluded by the authors that lavender had a slight sedative action and it was suggested that the vapour from essential oils might be stimulating olfactory sense organs directly. Delaveau et al. (1989) administered lavender essence (L. angustifolia P. Miller) orally to mice and observed changes in...

Aromatherapy basics

Aromatherapy applications include (Table 16.1) 4 A warm bath with drops of EO added. This results in the slow volatalization of the EO, and not in absorption of the EO through the skin as stated in aromatherapy books, as the EO Table 16.1 Clinical studies on aromatherapy after childbirth Burns and Blaney (1994) Aromatherapy in childbirth Aromatherapy in EO drops are 'mixed' in a tumbler of hot water or presented on a sugar cube or 'mixed' with a teaspoonful of honey and taken internally. This is not true aromatherapy, as almost all the rest of the methods are based on EO volatalization and therefore largely the effect of the EO on the central nervous system (CNS) via the nose and thence the Limbic System which can cause a secondary effect on other parts of the body. There are some conventional medically-approved and tested peppermint oil capsules (e.g. Colpermin) on the market, used for treating irritable bowel syndrome, IBS, but this could not be called 'aromatherapy' as the aroma is...

Essential Oils

It is true that essential oil from citrus fruit may issue from peel when the peel is simply cut, scraped or squeezed. Consequently, its knowledge coincides with the introduction of citrus cultivation in different areas, without practical uses being found, however, for a long time. It is not until the sixteenth century that definite references to orange and lemon essential oils are found. Conrad Gesner (1516-1565), was the first to mention distilled essential oils from oranges and lemons. He was followed by Jacques Besson (1571) and Giovanni Bartista della Porta (1589). It was the latter, in his Magiae naturalis, who clearly described the process of distillation, starting from the triturated peel of the two fruits. The same author also described the essential oil obtained from the distillation of bitter orange blossom. In 1688 bergamot essential oil was mentioned for the first time in a pharmacist's inventory in Giessen, in Hesse, Germany (Fluckiger, 1876). Also Gaubius (1771), at the...

Leaf Waxes and Proline Analogues

The existence of chemical varieties other than the commercial terpinen-4-ol type has meant that these have been harvested from the wild or sometimes cultivated, resulting in substandard oils being found in the marketplace. Hence oil quality is critical. As with other essential oils, quality before the advent of gas chromatography was defined by measuring the physical constants of refractive index, optical rotation, specific gravity and solubility in alcohol. Measurement of these constants is still mandatory for compliance with International, National and Pharmacopoeia Standards because of its usefulness defining physical constant ranges for the unique combination of constituents in any one essential oil.

Diffusion Tests Disc or Well

The method has been widely used to screen antimicrobial activity of essential oils, including tea tree oil (Kar and Jain 1971 Yousef and Tawil 1980 Janssen et al. 1985 Deans and Svoboda 1988 Biondi et al. 1993 Williams et al. 1993 Gundidza et al. 1994 Bagci and Digrak 1996). However, there are a number of disadvantages when the method is applied to the testing of water-insoluble essential oils and inconsistent results and a lack of correlation with MIC values have been reported (Morris et al. 1979 Janssen et al. 1986 Carson and Riley 1995). The lack of water solubility of the components of tea tree oil limit their diffusion through the agar. Only the more water soluble components, such as terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole and a-terpineol, diffuse into the agar from the disc hydrocarbon components remain on the disc or evaporate (Southwell et al. 1993). Consequently, the contribution of these components to the activity of the oil cannot be assessed and it is possible that the activity of the...

Identification of Components

The first analysis showed a complex chemical composition of the essential oils with 1,8-cineole constituting a major proportion of the oil. Only 19 chemical compounds were identified, with a number of unidentified compounds. The compounds which had been identified were classified into two main groups Hydrocarbons and Oxygenated Products . Acetate and the unknown compounds were classified in an Other group. Hydrocarbons contained two main groups monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes while oxygenated products contained terpenols, sesquiterpenols and ethers (Table 1). Following the sesquiterpenes, oxygenated products were eluted. For the New Caledonian M. quinquenervia essential oils, this group constituted one or two major chemical components. However, in this group the tree by tree variation was more significant than in the hydrocarbon groups.

Production from Plantations in Indonesia

Plantations are established on usually degraded lands using unimproved seedlings at an initial stocking of 5,000 stems per ha. These trees are allowed to grow-on for four years and may be intercropped during the first two years with cassava, corn and peanuts. They are then cut off at 1.1m above ground level in the first harvest of essential oils. Thereafter the plants are visited annually when coppice shoots greater that 1cm in diameter are selectively harvested and leaves and twigs stripped into hessian bags for transport to the distillery. In central Java some harvesting for oil production takes place throughout the year. However, peak production is during the period of June to October which coincides with the best months for oil recovery from the leaves. Brophy, J.J. and Doran, J.C. (1997) Essential Oils of Tropical Asteromyrtus, Callistemon and Melaleuca Species in search of interesting oils with commercial potential. ACIAR Monograph No. 40, ACIAR, Canberra. Lawless, J. (1995) The...

Infections of the Genitourinary System

The role of essential oils within the plants producing them, is primarily one of defence of the plant from attack by other organisms. It is possible that tea tree oil will find many marketable applications in agriculture through exploitation and expansion of this natural function. Essential oils would have the advantage over synthetic chemicals, such as those currently used to control post-harvest pathogens, of being more acceptable both environmentally and to the consumer. Potential applications include control agents of plant pathogens, insect repellants and antifeedants and insecticides. Terpinen-4-ol, the major ingredient of tea tree oil, has been shown to be very active as a repellant of the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegyptii (Hwang et al. 1985). Bishop and Thornton (1997) demonstrated the ability of tea tree oil to inhibit hyphal growth of fifteen common fungal post-harvest pathogens. Whilst direct contact was more effective, the oil also demonstrated significant antifungal...

Cytotoxicity using Human Cell Lines

Tisserand and Balacs (1995) indicate that niaouli oil is safe to be used in aromatherapy and is considered non-irritant and non-sensitizing. Linalool and nerolidol, the major constituents in some chemotypes of Melaleuca quinquenervia, are also considered to be safe for aromatherapy use (Tisserand and Balacs 1995) and hence non-irritant and non-sensitising (see Chapter 15). Schaller, M.S. and Korting, H.C. (1995) Allergic airborne contact dermatitis from essential oils used in aromatherapy. Clin. & Exp. Dermatology, 20, 143-145. Allergisch contacteczeem voor 'tea tree'-olie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 138(16), 823-825. Villar, D., Knight, M.J., Hanson, S.R. and Buck, W.B. (1994) Toxicity of Melaleuca Oil and Related Essential Oils Applied Topically on Dogs and Cats. Vet. Human toxicology, 36(2), 139-142.

Antimicrobial Activity of Tea Tree

Penfold and Grant (1925) first demonstrated the activity of tea tree oil in the RidealWalker test, a standard test of the period, which employed Bacillus typhosus (now known as Salmonella typhi) as the test organism. The Rideal-Walker coefficient was reported to be 11, indicating that tea tree oil is 11 times more effective than phenol. The results in Table 1 show that tea tree oil also compares very favourably with a number of other essential oils when tested by this method. Table 1 Antimicrobial acitivity of some essential oils (Rideal-Walker coefficient data adapted from Penfold and Grant (1925) and Schilcher (1985)) included tea tree oil in a study of the antimicrobial activity of ten essential oils derived from Australian native plants. Tea tree oil was effective against the five test organisms, which included both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, a yeast and a mould. The MIC value against S. aureus (0.25-0.2 ) was considerably lower than that reported by Low et al....

Tea Tree Constituents

Chemical Structure Cardamom

At the same time that Melaleuca linariifolia var. alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) was being raised to species status as M. alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel (Cheel 1924), the first chemical investigations of the taxon were being undertaken (Penfold 1925). Earlier, Baker and Smith (1906, 1907, 1910, 1911, 1913) had investigated the oils of M. thymifolia, M. uncinata, M. nodosa, M. genistifolia (M. bracteata), M. gibbosa, M. pauciflora and M. leucadendron in what must be considered, by todays standards, a most superficial way. Penfold (1925), investigated M. linariifolia and M. alternifolia concurrently and concluded that their essential oils were practically identical . This investigation included measurement of oil yields (1.5-2.0 ), specific gravity, optical rotation, refractive index, solubility in alcohol, fractional distillation and identification of chemical constituents by the preparation of derivatives and comparison of melting points and mixed melting points with...

Cajuputi Oil International Name

Melaleuca Ericifolia Mature Tree Photo

Although some other uses are found for Melaleuca, this aromatic and medicinal plant genus is best known for the production of medicinal essential oils. Non-medicinal uses (Boland et al. 1984 Wrigley and Fagg 1993) include broom fence manufacture from the branches, bark paintings, sealing and insulation from their many coloured barks, fuel and construction materials from the wood and honey from the nectar. Cheel (Tea Tree) against tobacco mosaic virus. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7, 641-644. Bishop, C.D. and Thornton, I.B. (1997) Evaluation of the antifungal activity of the essential oils of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora and Melaleuca alternifolia on post-harvest pathogens. J. Essent. Oil Res., 9, 77-82. J. (1984) Forest Trees of Australia, 4th edition, Nelson, Melbourne. Brophy, J.J. and Doran, J.C. (1996) Essential Oils of Tropical Asteromyrtus, Callistemon and Melaleuca Species. ACIAR Monograph No. 40, Canberra. Guenther, E. (1950) The Essential Oils, Van Nostrand, New York, Vol. 4,...

Use of Solubilising and Emulsifying Agents

Broth and agar dilution methods have generally been developed for use with watersoluble preparations and require modification for use with essential oils of low water solubility. To ensure contact between the test organism and tea tree oil for the duration of the assay it is necessary to use a solubilising or emulsifying agent. The agents most commonly used are Tween 80 and Tween 20 at concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 20 (Beylier 1979 Walsh and Longstaff 1987 Chand et al. 1994 Carson et al. 1995b Griffin et al. 1998). DMSO (Scortichini and Rossi 1991 Aboutabl et al. 1995), DMF (Kubo et al. 1991), ethanol (Morris et al. 1979 Deans and Svoboda 1988 Biondi et al. 1993) and 0.15-0.2 agar have also been used (Remmal et al. 1993 Mann and Markham 1998). To obtain consistent, reproducible results it is important that contact between the oil and the microorganism is maintained throughout the test period. Allegrini et al. (1973) reported that emulsions of essential oils in water containing...

Preservation And Storage

In order to avoid deterioration of citrus essential oils during storage, it is necessary to protect them from the deleterious effects of atmospheric oxygen, light, heat, residual The oxygen in the atmosphere has a direct oxidising effect on the stored oils, light affects the colour and the fragrance, while heat accelerates these processes (Braverman, 1949). The development of undesirable flavours, as well as the deterioration of citrus essential oils, is related to limonene auto-oxidation (Kesterson etal., 1971). The formation of some compounds (e.g. p-cymene in lemon oil) can be considered characteristic indicator of deterioration and the level of peroxides is a further index of essential oil ageing. Normal essential oils should not have a peroxide content higher than 0.32 per cent. Given that most of the factors which give rise to alteration of the composition of essential oils are known, it is possible to select the most appropriate conditions for storage. First of all, citrus...

Skin Sensitization and Contact Dermatitis

(g) A 53-year-old patient suffered allergic airborne contact dermatitis from several essential oils after extensive use of the oils in wet dressings, baths and room aerosols (Schaller and Korting 1995). Although the oils used and tested included tea tree oil, only lavender, rosewood and jasmine gave positive patch test responses.

Molecular Perspective

Although steam distillation is the preferred method for the isolation of essential oils, some commercial products are obtained by alternative processes. For example, citrus oils are isolated from the peels of citrus by cold pressing and many perfumery products (e.g. jasmin, boronia, acacia) by solvent extraction. This latter method is usually preferred for low-volume high-value products. More recently carbon dioxide and supercritical fluids have been replacing conventional solvents especially for important flavour constituents (Kerrola 1995). little is known of the extractive constituents of M. cajuputi and M. quinquenervia. Some workers have investigated the alcoholic extraction of M. alternifolia, M. linariifolia, M. lanceolata and M. uncinata (Brophy et al. 1989b Southwell and Stiff 1989 Southwell and Stiff 1990 Jones et al. 1987).

Acute Dermal Toxicity

The acute dermal toxicity test ascertains whether a specific LD50 dose will cause problems if applied dermally. Some chemicals may be as toxic dermally as orally. But tea tree oil, as with most essential oils, is not as toxic dermally as it is orally. This is most likely due to the slow absorption of the oil into the body through the skin, thus allowing organs, such as the liver, time to detoxify it and the kidney to eliminate the metabolites of the toxic material.

Variation in Oil Concentration

From first experience, the oil concentration was observed to vary over time (Penfold et al. 1948) and this gave rise to a number of studies that attempted to document and explain the variation (Table 1). Of the 12 studies that measured variation over time, five recorded a variation of more than 100 above the lowest value in the study, six had a variation between 15-57 , and only one recorded no variation. Similar variation is often found with other essential oils or secondary metabolites, as instanced in reviews by Fluck (1963), Wiermann (1981), Harborne and Turner (1984), Lawrence (1986), Gershenzon and Croteau (1991).

Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

MIC measurements have been used extensively to quantify the antimicrobial activity of essential oils. This type of test is more useful than the diffusion test for comparing both the activity of oils of different chemical composition and the sensitivity of a variety of organisms, and a number of variations of the method have been published (Beylier 1979 Villar et al. 1986 Kubo et al. 1991 Patkar et al. 1993 Southwell et al. 1993 Chand et al. 1994 Dellar et al. 1994 Nguyen et al. 1994 Carson et al. 1995b Griffin et al. 1998). These include broth (macro and micro) and agar methods, with or without the use of an indicator of cell viability to determine the endpoint.

Other Byproducts

In California, between the years 1899 and 1915, many citrus by-products were prepared and put on the market. These are discussed in a report by Will (1916), which mentions, apart from citric acid, essential oils (cold-pressed, distilled, terpeneless) and pectin, the following dried peel (cattle feed), candied peel, purees, syrup, alcohol, wine and vinegar. To this list, Chace (1922) added marmalades, jams and jellies, and also described their methods of production.

Geoffrey Rdavis

The definition of an essential oil which was adopted by the Standards Association of Australia in 1968 and also by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) at the Ninth Plenary Meeting of the Technical Committee ISO TC54 Essential Oils, held in Lisbon, 5th-9th March, 1968, was Essential oils are volatile oils, generally odorous, which occur in certain plants or specified parts of plants, recovered therefrom by accepted procedures, such that the nature and composition of the product is, as nearly as practicable, unchanged by such procedures. There are other methods of extracting essential oils from plants, including Certain essential oils may be more advantageously steam-distilled at still pressures greater than atmospheric pressure, others at lesser still pressures. Pressure distillation is achieved by enhancing the still pressure which is then maintained independently of the boiler pressure. Fortunately, there is no advantage in either reduced or elevated pressure in the...

Julie Lmarkham

Captain Cook is reported to have used the leaves of the tea tree to brew a spicy tea and Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist with Cook's expedition, included samples of the plant in his collection. Exactly which plants were used is not known as the name 'tea tree' has been used for a number of similar plants in the genera Melaleuca and Leptospermum. Whilst essential oils from several species possess antimicrobial activity, the oil which is widely used today for its antiseptic properties is the oil of Melaleuca alternifolia. During the 1930's the reputation of tea tree oil as 'a medicine chest in a bottle' continued to develop. The major producers of the oil, Australian Essential Oils Ltd, published a report in 1936 on the medical and dental applications of Ti-trol, the name used for the neat oil and of Melasol, a water-miscible preparation (cited in Lassak and McCarthy 1983). The list of applications in external conditions continued to grow, and all reports stressed the non-toxic and...

Richard Ldavis

Penfold, A.R. (1925) The essential oils of Melaleuca linariifolia (Smith) and M. alternifolia (Cheel). J. Proc. Roy. Soc. NSW., 59, 306-325. Southwell, I.A. (1996) Tea tree oil, skin irritancy and bioactivity. Australasian Aromatherapy Conference,

Joseph Jbrophy

With so many species to choose from it is obvious that during this present century a significant amount of research has been carried out examining the essential oils of the various Melaleuca species. This has been carried out both to detail the contents of the various essential oils and also to search for potentially commercial oils. Research on the essential oils of members of the genus Melaleuca at the University of New South Wales has been carried out to both supplement and extend our knowledge of the chemistry of this genus. We have had the advantage of the availability of specimens collected for the current revision of the genus by Craven. To date approximately 180 species have been either examined for the first time or re-examined and the contents of their essential oils documented. During the course of this work some species have shown essential oils that may give promise of commercial use. These species, and the oils obtained from them, are discussed in more detail in this...

Proline Analogues

Cheel (Tea Tree) Against Tobacco Mosaic Virus. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7, 641-644. Bishop, C.D. and Thornton, I.B. (1997) Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora and Melaleuca alternifolia on Post-Harvest Pathogens. J. Essent. Oil Res., 9, 77-82. Brophy, J.J., Boland, D.J. and Lassak, E.V. (1989a) Leaf Essential Oils of Melaleuca and Leptospermum species from tropical Australia. In D.J.Boland (ed.). Trees for the Tropics, ACIAR, Canberra, pp. 193-203. Brophy, J.J. and Doran, J.C. (1996) Essential Oils of Tropical Asteromyrtus, Callistemon and Melaleuca Phytochemistry, 22, 947-949. Croteau, R. (1987) Biosynthesis and catabolism of monoterpenoids. Chem. Rev., 87, 929-954. Davenport, J.B, Jones, T.G.H. and Sutherland, M.D. (1949) The essential oils of the Queensland flora. Part XXIII. A re-examination of the essential oil of Melaleuca linariifolia. Univ. Queensl. Pap., Dep. Chem., 1(36), 1-12. Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex 1986 (1996)...

The Condenser

For tea tree the liquid oil and water flowing from the condenser during distillation are, for practical purposes, non-miscible and of different densities. Therefore separation can be achieved by allowing the oil to rise to the top of the mixture. There are essential oils with a higher density than water, and some with a density close to that of water. These require different apparatus or treatment, but for tea tree oil simple flotation is an effective means of separating oil and water.

Michael Russell

For some essential oils, as little as one teaspoonful can be fatal. Wormseed, sassafras, parsley, eucalyptus and camphor have all caused child fatalities in low doses (Tisserand and Balacs 1995). Consequently, guarding against accidentally overdosing with certain essential oils is important, especially with children. Storing essential oils that are known to be harmful out of children's reach and in child-proof bottles is a sensible way to minimise accidental consumption. Nevertheless, it is of vital importance to understand the toxic properties of each specific oil to be certain of the risks involved. The LD50 test is probably the prime result for any substance as it determines whether or not the substance can be ingested safely or not. LD50 test results are usually expressed in the form of grams (or ml) per kilogram of body weight, thus the heavier the person, the higher a dose needs to be, before it becomes lethal. It is for this reason that children are particularly susceptible to...

Botany The Morphology And Biology Of Thymus

The leaves can be flat and more or less wide, or with revolute margins and almost acicular. All intermediates seem to be possible. The indumentum is very variable. Some species have leaves without hairs. The tector hairs in Thymus are always simple, but rarely single-celled. Leaves are very frequently ciliate at the margins, either at the whole margin or only at the base or on the petiole (Figure 1.9). The glandular trichomes are very important containing the essential oil. There exist two types of glandular trichomes pedicellate glands with the upper cells full of essential oils, or big globose glands, typical ofLamiaceae, with some basal cells (Figure 1.10). Chapter 3 provides additional information on the anatomy and physiology of these glands.

Enantioselective GC Multidimensional GC

The chirality of floral scent compounds can be crucial for the olfactory response of pollinators and herbivores. Hence determining the enantiomeric composition of floral volatiles is critical in understanding plant-animal interactions. Since the 1990s, enantioselective capillary columns with chiral phases, such as different hydrophobic cyclodextrin derivatives, have been developed for enantiomer resolution of a variety of chiral volatile compounds, primarily from essential oils.68,69 As a general rule, polar compounds are better resolved on acylated cyclodextrin derivatives, while nonpolar analytes are better separated on prealkylated cyclodextrin derivatives.69 K nig et al. have assembled an enormous amount of data for the identification and enantiomeric recognition of hundreds of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons.70-73 Other examples for the application of cyclodextrin derivatives in flavor and fragrance analysis were documented by Schreier et al.74

Terpenes see resins oleoresins and gumresins

Terpenes are among the most widespread and chemically diverse groups of natural products. They are flammable unsaturated hydrocarbons, existing in liquid form. They are found in essential oils, resins or oleoresins. They are classified as mono, di, tri and sesquiterpenoids. The function of terpene is generally considered to be both ecological and physiological.

Chemistry and biogenesis of essential oil from cymbopogons

About 25 to 30 species are reported in genus Cymbopogon, and many of them are very good sources of essential oils of commercial importance. The compounds present in these oils are characteristic, but cannot necessarily be used for identification, of the species. Several botanical races of these species produce essential oils that are entirely different in their constituents. The essential oils of the Cymbopogon species mainly comprises of mono- and sesquiterpenoids and, despite their importance, very few high-tech identification techniques (such as GC-MS high resolution) have been utilized to identify the minor and trace constituents present in them further, only a few reports are available in the literature. An attempt has been made in this chapter to present a complete analysis of most of the essential oils obtained from these Cymbopogon species. Biosynthetic pathways to most of the mono- and sesquiterpenes have been discussed. Efforts have also been made to provide complete data on...

Chemotaxonomic significance

Reports of phytochemical studies on less than 50 of the total number of Magnolia species are available to date. The amount and composition of classes of compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, essential oils and many others are governed by the age of the plant or its parts, the geographical source of the plants investigated, and their general habitat (Hegnauer, 1986). Therefore, detailed information on these factors and comprehensive data on chemical variations among the plants are essential for chemotaxonomic evaluation. On the basis of the data available from published results, it is somewhat difficult to draw any conclusion on the chemotaxonomy of the genus Magnolia. However, it is fair to say that the phytochemistry of Magnolia looks similar to that of other allied genera, especially Liriodendron and Michelia, within the family Magnoliaceae. The presence or absence of different classes of plant secondary metabolites in different species of this genus is summarised in Table 3.2....

Study of in vitro pharmacological activity

The preparation chosen to assess the in vitro pharmacological activity of an essential oil or its components on smooth muscle must respond to spasmogenic agents, that is, those causing a contraction and spasmolytic agents, which will relax smooth muscle. Preparations of intestinal smooth muscle are robust and, although spasmogenic and spasmolytic activity can be identified on those from rabbit and the large intestine of the guinea-pig, the field stimulated guinea-pig ileum allows quantitative experiments to be performed readily. The field stimulated guinea-pig ileum also enables a neurogenic response to be distinguished from a myogenic response and the receptors involved to be elucidated. When the reported use of the essential oil indicates a targeted organ such as the uterus or lungs then appropriate preparations of these smooth muscles can be studied. For a more complete study of the in vitro pharmacology it would be necessary to include vascular and cardiac tissues and to examine...

Spasmogenic action on intestinal smooth muscle

An initial contraction is sometimes observed with lavender essential oil before the spasmolytic action occurs (Lis-Balchin et al., 1996a) and this is probably due to the presence of 1,8-cineole and a- and jS-pinene, which have been shown to contract guinea-pig ileum (Lis-Balchin and Hart, 1997). Preliminary results indicate that a-pinene is not acting via muscarinic cholinocep-tors or histamine receptors and that the two enantiomers of a-pinene do not have identical pharmacological activity (Lis-Balchin et al., 1999). On the duodenum of the rat, Gamez et al. (1990), on the other hand, found 1,8-cineole to have spasmolytic activity. Recent experiments using methanolic and water-soluble extracts of L. angustifolia dried flowers, L. angustifolia fresh flowers and fresh leaves, assessed separately, L. stoechas leaves and L. viridis leaves have indicated that the water-soluble tea extract of L. angustifolia dried flowers and the leaves of L. angustifolia have some spasmogenic action, while...

The Spatial Structure Of Genetic Diversity In Thyme

The genus Thymus provides a particularly interesting situation to study the ecological and evolutionary significance of the spatial population structure. Since the early 1960s, one species, Thymus vulgaris has been at the heart of ecological and genetic research on the evolutionary dynamics of not just one but two genetic polymorphisms (see review by Thompson etal., 1998). First, like most labiates, thyme is an aromatic plant glandular trichomes on the leaves and floral parts contain monoterpenoid essential oils. Thyme plants vary in the monoterpene composition of their essential oils, one monoterpene being present in a high percentage for a particular plant. In the south of France, one of six different monoterpenes may dominate the essential oil produced by a plant species, and thus six different chemical forms can be detected. This secondary compound variation has a genetic basis and the presence of six distinct genetically-based forms has thus provided an attractive system to...

Many aromatic compounds derive from geranyl pyrophosphate

The monoterpenes comprise a large number of open chain and cyclic iso-prenoids, many of which, due to their high volatility and their lipid character, are classified as essential oils. Many of them have a distinctive, often pleasant odor and are, for example, responsible for the typical scents of pine needles, thyme, lavender, roses, and lily of the valley. Flower scents attract insects for the distribution of pollen, but in addition some volatiles also repel insects and other animals and thus protect the plants from herbivores.

Use of Essential Oil as Animal Foodadditive

Vogt and Rauch (1991) evaluated the effect of essential oils as food additives for chicken. Neither with caraway oil nor with coriander, thyme, garlic or onion oils in different doses they found any significant influence on weight or feed efficiency. When checked at the end of the experiment in the organoleptic test, they did not found any typical taste or smell of the meat resembling to the corresponding essential oil in either of the cases.

Materials and methods

Essential oils were obtained from various commercial sources and each oil was analysed by GC using a Shimadzu GC 8A with a 50m X 0.32 mm OV101 column the temperature program was set at 4 Cmin_1 from 100 to 230 C. present in each RT interval was also determined. The essential oils were diluted in methanol (usually X 1,000) and 0.1-0.2 ml was applied to the tissue preparations in the organ bath giving a final dilution of X200,000 to X400,000 (a concentration of 2.5 X 10 6 to 5 X 10 6). Pharmacological studies, carried out on guinea-pig ileum were contrasted against many practising aromatherapists' predictions of the effect of essential oils on the patient (alone or as mixtures).

Results of the studies

Previous comparisons of the pharmacological activity of many components and essential oils suggested that monoterpenes were responsible for contractions in the guinea-pig ileum in vitro (Lis-Balchin et al, 1996a,b). This was best illustrated by work on two New Zealand essential oils Manuka and Kanuka. The former was largely composed of sesquiterpenes and produced a relaxation in the gut, while the latter was composed largely of monoterpenes and produced a contraction (Lis-Balchin et al., 1996a). Further, work on over seventy essential oils suggested that there was a considerable correlation of contraction of the small intestine with a high percentage of monoterpenes (but not sesquiterepenes) (Lis-Balchin et al., 1996b 1998). This hypothesis was put to the test, using essential oils alone or in mixes, by calculating the total per cent of components in different RT intervals (Table 23.1) and predicting what the effect on the smooth muscle would be. Whenever there was a considerable...

Interpretation Of Transport Data

Next, the gradient between scent constituent concentrations inside and outside the tissue has to be taken into account. While the headspace amounts of these compounds have been reported for many plant species, relatively little is known about their internal concentrations. Essential oils were analyzed for diverse plant species, but in many cases only qualitative data were given and for only some species (and floral organs) have the amounts of essential oil constituents per flower (or surface area) been reported. Based on these results, the concentration of scent molecules inside epidermal cells can be inferred, assuming that only these cells biosynthesize and thus contain essential oils. Accordingly, the petal epidermis of A. majus should, for example, contain roughly 5 g mm3 of methyl benzoate (using published data52 and assuming an average epidermis thickness of 50 pm, as well as even distribution of methyl benzoate in all petal areas). This calculation demonstrates that scent...

Use Of Medicinal Plants Of Ginger Refrences

Oxford & IBH, New Delhi, 329-344. Bordoloi, A.K., Sperkova, J., and Leclercq, P.A. (1999) Essential oils of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Ibrahim, H., and Zakaria, M.B. (1987) Essential oils from three Malaysian Zingiberaceae species. Malaysian J. Sci., 9, 73-76.

The taxonomy of the genus Lavandula L

Some species have been widely cultivated since ancient times and are familiar garden plants and hence there are many legends and folklore associated with these plants. The essential oils, principally harvested from L. x intermedia and L. angustifolia, are of economic importance in the perfumery and fragrance industry, some are widely used in aromatherapy and are known to have antiseptic and antifungal qualities. A number of species and their hybrids are horticulturally desirable and are cultivated in both northern and southern hemispheres. The Latin name Lavandula comes from the ancient use of this plant to perfume water for bathing, being derived from the Latin word lavare, meaning to be washed. Many species are highly aromatic due to the presence of essential oils that are borne in glands covering much of the plant. In habit they vary from woody shrubs up to a metre in height, to perennial woody-based shrubs or annual herbs. The leaves can be entirely or deeply dissected, and are...

Analytical and Isolation Methods

Liquid column chromatography is the oldest method used in organic chemistry since Tswett's discovery in 1906. Essential oils from ginger can be fractionated on a silica gel column into a hydrocarbon fraction and an oxygenated fraction. Elution solvents are nonpolar hydrocarbons such as pentane, and for the latter a mixture of pentane with ether (2 1, v v) or acetone (4 1, v v), respectively (Van Beek, 1991). Thus essential oils with removed terpenes can be obtained on a large scale. However, terpenes containing a furan ring such as perillene and rosefuran found in ginger oil occur in both fractions. More polar compounds such as aliphatic acids can be eluted with a more polar solvent (pentane ethanol 9 1 v v). Chromatographic procedures on alumina were used by Herout et al. (1953) for the isolation of some sesquiterpene hydrocarbons ( + )-ar-curcumene, bisabolene, farnesene, and a-zingiberene. But this class of compounds was better separated by column chromatography on silver nitrate...

Antibacterial Effects

Since long time human beings used herbs and spices for preventing food deterioration and pathogenic diseases. In general, plants from the Liliaceae family followed by Myrtaceae, Cruciferae and Labiatae showed the highest antimicrobial activity. While usually the antimicrobial effect of caraway is expected to be low, Morris et al. (1979) reports that together with essential oils of other botanicals the oil of caraway showed considerable effect.

Extraction Separation and Identification Methods

Besides the usual hydrodistillation, steam distillation, leaching, and pressing, extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide also has been widely used in the last 20 years for essential oils. For example, solvent extraction with acetone gives the ginger oleoresin, which contains the essential oils as well as the pungent principles and other nonvolatile compounds present in ginger. When compared with other methods, it gives the best results (Zhou et al., 1994 Roy et al., 1996 Yu et al., 1998 He et al., 1999 Zang et al., 2000). For almost 20 years, supercritical carbon dioxide has been employed for extraction of natural products and particularly for ginger powder and other spices (Meyer-Warnod, 1984 Chen et al., 1986, 1987 Chen and Ho, 1988 Naik and Maheshwari, 1989). It is used mainly because supercritical carbon dioxide is safe, noncombustible, inexpensive, odorless, colorless, tasteless, nontoxic, and readily available solvent. Its low viscosity enables it to penetrate the matrix to...

Changes in the essential ingredients during storage

Since demand for the whole year must be covered, the long-term storage of the dried drugs is also essential. In the case of the storage-sensitive chamomile flowers, the main problem is a loss of essential oils in the dry drug, which also contain a considerable proportion of the active ingredients. The main reason for the losses is the low steam pressure of the oil-water vapor mixture that forms, which encourages the evaporation of essential ingredients. The most important factors influencing this are the storage temperature, the length of storage, the relative air humidity, and a number of physiological-technical peculiarities of chamomile. A strong mechanical treatment of the chamomile flowers (processing as finely chopped plants in filter bags ) does not necessarily lead to greater losses of essential oils (25.6 loss in 18 months, with a level of 0.32 essential oil remaining in the stored drug 7 ). The active ingredient groups matricin and chamazulene in the chamomile flowers are...

Microencapsulated Ginger

Ginger deterpenation by liquid chromatography using silica gel column was achieved by Shankaracharya and Shankaranarayana (1987). They claimed that the terpeneless or deterpenated essential oils are valued for their stability and enhanced flavor strength. Effects of ethylene dioxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical sensory and microbial quality of ground spices and their essential oils (ginger, cinnamon, fennel, and fenegreek) were studied by Toofanian and Stegeman (1988). Irradiation of ground ginger with a dose of 5 KGy resulted in a slight decrease of 14 , whereas fumigated ginger showed no significant loss in volatile oil content. No major differences in sensory properties were found when comparing the untreated irradiated or fumigated species.

Mc Lafferty 1974 In Ginger

Meireles, M.A.A., and Nikolov, Z.L. (1994) Extraction and fractionation of essential oils with liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2). In Charalambous, G. (ed) Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 34, 171-199. Meyer-Warnod, B. (1984) Natural essential oils. Perfum. Flavorist, 9, 93. Moyler, D.A., Browning, R.M., and Stephens, M.A. (1994) Carbon dioxide extraction of essential oils. In Charalambous, G. (ed) Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 34, 145 170. Naik, S.N., and Maheshwari, R.C. (1989) Separation of essential oils from plant materials by liquid carbon dioxide. V.T.T. Symp., 102, 355. Nigam, M.C., Nigam, I.C., Levi, L., and Handa, K.L. (1964) Essential oils and their constituents. XXII. Detection of new trace components in oil of ginger. Can. J. Chem., 42 (11), 2610-2615. Sheen, L.Y., Lin, S.Y, and Tsai, S.J. (1992a) Odor assessments for volatile compounds of garlic and ginger essential oils by sniffing gas chromatography. Zhongguo Nongye Huaxue Huizhi,...

Uses If Barteria Nigritiana

In insects, basic food requirements seem to be very similar and yet most insects feed preferentially only on a few closely related plant species. Fraenkel (1959) assumes that plant substances which are of secondary importance to the metabolism of the plants, such as glycosides, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and essential oils, may repel most insects or other animals but attract those few that feed on the particular plant species, which may have its particular smell or taste. Tests have shown that isolated active substances (glyco-alkaloids, mustard-oil glycosides, essential oils) even induced feeding when incorporated into neutral media (filter paper or agar jelly) or when applied to leaves commonly not accepted by the insects. Euw and Reichstein (1968) isolated 0.1 mg of aristolochic acid from swallowtail butterflies (the larvae of which feed exclusively on plants of the Aristolochia family). This acid protects the butterflies against vertebrate predators (Oliver-Bever, 1970). Like...

In Plant Reaction to Stress

Tobacco Mosaic Virus Salicylic Acid

Salicylic acid (SA) (ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid) is one of the phenolic compounds commonly present in higher plants. The highest contents of salicylic acid in the free form as well as in the form of its glucoside have been found and reported in plants of Salicaceae, Betulaceae and Ericaceae families. Volatile methyl salicylate (MeSA) is one of the main ingredients of essential oils of Apiaceae, Violaceae and Rosaceae families, attracting insects and aiding plant reproduction this way (Shlaev et al. 1997) . Salicin, an active extract from Salix alba L. bark, had been used for centuries as a pain-relieving and fever-reducing remedy of which the active ingredient was first isolated as a crystalline compound in 1828 and further converted into a sugar and salicylic acid (Pierpoint 1997) . According to some authors, salicylic acid belongs to a group of plant hormones according to the function it exhibits in plant growth and development, but its content in plants is substantially higher than...

Other Constituents of Black Pepper

Ber., 103, 3572-3580. Guenther, E. (1950) Essential oils of the plant family Piperaceae In The Essential Oils, Vol. 5. black pepper. J. Agric. Food Chem., 5, 53-55. Ikeda, R.N., Stanley, W.L., Vannier, S.H., and Spitler, F.M. (1962) The monoterpene composition of some essential oils. J. Food Sci., 27, 455-458. Inatani, R., Nakatani, Ni and Fuwa, H. (1981) Structure and synthesis of two new phenolic *Lawrence, Brian (1981) Essential Oils 1979-1980. Allured Publishing Corporation, Illinois, U.S.A., 140-228. Nigam, M.D. and Handa, K.L. (1964) Constituents of essential oils. Indian Perfumer, 8, 15-17.

Relaxing sedative antistress anticonvulsive and spasmolytic properties

The EO of lavender, frequently used in aromatherapy, positively affected mood, EEG patterns of alertness and mathematical computations. This result of a test was assessed with 40 adults where the so-called lavender group subsequently had increased jS-power in the EEG, suggesting increased drowsiness, and reported on a less depressed mood and of feeling more relaxed Another study with the aim to link the effects of odorants with the emotional process through autonomic nervous system responses was performed and found that among the tested odorants the inhalation of lavender oil elicited mostly 'happiness'. More than 60 subjects showed similar autonomic responses which can be transcribed into basic emotions (Vernet-Maury et al., 1999). Similar results were obtained in an experimental study which was performed on 122 patients to evaluate the use of aromatherapy. Those patients who received an aromatherapeutical treatment with lavender oil reported a significantly greater improvement in...

Allelochemicals As Biopesticides

The direct effect of benzaldehyde on C. elegans chemotaxis kinetics was analyzed by Nuttley et al. (2001). An initial attractive response to 100 benzaldehyde was reported, followed by a strong aversion to the chemical. They determined this behavior to be mediated by two genetically separable response pathways. initially, upon exposure, the attraction response dominates but eventually gives way to a repulsive response. Oka (2001) found that with juveniles of M. javanica, immobilization and hatching inhibition in vitro were greater with benzaldehyde and furfural than with several other essential oils. Benzaldehyde and furfural also reduced galling on tomato in pot experiments where other aldehydes were not effective (Oka, 2001).

Toxicity of Caraway towards Bacteria Fungi Mites and Insects and its Advantages for People

Farag et al. (1989b) reported the inhibitory effect of six spice essential oils (including caraway) on 3 strains of Gram-negative bacteria and 4 Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the anti-microbial compounds in tested spices. This may be crucial for food preservation. Microbial spoilage of food is mostly inhibited by chemical food preservatives which are not fully safe for human health. Farag et al. (1989b) suggests that natural essential oils can be applied practically as antimicrobial agents which will prevent the deterioration of stored foods by bacteria and will not cause health problems to the consumer and handler. The essential oils of several spices have strong antifungal properties and it is highly desirable to control mycotoxin formation during the storage of food. Carum carvi essential oil causes inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus. Chemicals such as potassium fluoride, acetic acid, potassium...

General Description And Taxonomic Division Of The Umbelliferae Family

The Umbelliferae family is rich in different special compounds. The most characteristic compounds are the essential oils. These compounds are secreted in schizogenous canals in all organs. There are some essential oils which has been isolated first from Umbelliferae species and the names of these compounds were given after these species, i.e. carvon (isolated first from Carum carvi). These compounds are accumulated also in other species.

Humulus lupulus Cannabaceae

In addition to the bitter acids and essential oils, the flowers of hops offer a rich array of polyphenolic compounds, primarily chalcones and their accompanying flavanones, many of which are prenylated derivatives (Stevens et al., 1997, 1999a, b). The most prominent flavonoid in all plants studied was xanthohumol 342 (3'-prenyl-6'-0-methylchalconaringenin chalconaringenin is 2',4',6',4-tetrahydroxychalcone) (see Fig. 4.11 for structures 342-346). Several additional chalcones variously adorned with 0-methyl and or C-prenyl functions were also encountered, along with their respective flavanones. Three new compounds were described in the Stevens et al.

Composition Of Ginger

Essential oils, in general, contain volatile compounds of many classes of organic substances. Guenther (1972) has classified the essential oil components into four main groups The most characteristic group of compounds present in essential oils are the terpenes. Terpenes comprise of hydrocarbons of the formula (C5H8)n and their oxygenated derivatives. Their building block is the hydrocarbon isoprene (C5H8). The class of terpenes is determined by the number of isoprene units in the chain as disclosed by the value of n. When n 2, the resulting C10 group is referred to as monoterpenes, whereas n 3 yields sesquiterpenes, n 4, diterpenes, and so on. Strictly not all terpenes are represented by the formula exceptions exist. The oxygenated derivatives of terpene hydrocarbons include, for example, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters, and phenols, which contribute to much of the perfumery value of the essential oil. Terpenes may be further classified into acyclic, monocyclic, bicyclic, and...

Terpenoids And Steroids

Monoterpenes in plant essential oils Sesquiterpenes in essential oils Terpenoids and steroids are generally lipid-soluble and are located in the cytoplasm of the plant cell. Essential oils (EOs), the most volatile fraction of terpenoids, occur in special glandular cells on the leaf surface. Carotenoids, which are C40 tetraterpenoids (Britton, 1980 Goodwin, 1980 Straub, 1987) are specially associated with chloroplasts in the leaf and chromoplasts in petals. Terpenoids are normally extracted from plant tissue with organic solvents (hexane, ethyl ether or chloroform) and are separated by column chromatography on silica gel or alumina using the same solvents.

Interference of Scarvone with the Potato Wound Healing Process

The antimicrobial activity of several essential oils and isolated compounds thereof, such as S-carvone, has been established for many different taxonomic groups of microorganism ranging from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to fungi including yeasts. Because essential oils contain a variety of compounds from different chemical classes, it is not possible to discriminate one single type of mechanism by which these compounds act on microorganisms. A prominent feature these compounds have in common, is their high degree of hydrophobicity. Due to this feature, these compounds partition preferentially into biological lipid bilayers as a function of their own lipophilicity and the fluidity of the membrane (Oosterhaven 1995b). Accumulation of lipophilic compounds into biological membranes enhances their availability to the cell and thus may cause toxic effects (Sikkema et al. 1992, Sikkema et al. 1994). This is exemplified by lipophilic hydrocarbons such as P-pinene and cyclohexane...

Chemical Overview And Chemotaxonomy

The terpenoids present in Artemisia species are representative of all classes of compounds, from monoterpenes up to triterpenes. Most of the species are characterized by the typical fragrance of lower terpenoids, such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. These volatile molecules are present in the essential oils, which impart strong aromatic odours to the plants. Among the various compounds, lower terpenoids such as camphor, thujone, borneol and 1,8-cineole are the most representative (Fig. 1). Recently, analytical methods to determine the oil components have been improved by the use of capillary electrophoresis, whilst the separation of enan-tiomers has been achieved by the use of 3-cyclodextrin coated chiral capillary columns (Ravid et al., 1992). As for many aromatic plants, the oil content of Artemisia is affected by environmental factors. The monoterpenoid content of some A. tridentata ssp. tridentata plants varied seasonally with the highest content reached in July (4.18 ) and...

Scientific proof of EO efficacy aroma science Known bioactivities of EOs

The antimicrobial activity of some of the EOs is often regarded by aromatherapists as proof of the aromatherapeutic usage. However, the actual mode of application of such EOs is far removed from the proper definition of aromatherapy, which is treatment with odours. Furthermore, although many EOs are very active on many different animal tissues in vitro (Lis-Balchin and Hart, 1997a), we have no idea as yet whether their activity in minute amounts (as used in aromatherapy massage) can benefit the patient through direct action on target organs or tissues (Vickers, 1996) rather than through the odour pathway leading into the mid-brain's 'Limbic System' and thence through the normal sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. There is also no proof that synergism occurs when mixtures of EOs are used (Lis-Balchin et al, 1997d).

Secretory Structures In Plants

Essential oils and other secondary plant metabolites are found in a wide range of plant species including annual, biennial or perennial herbaceous plants, evergreen or dcciduous shrubs and trees. The ecological and evolutionary role of these secondary metabolites has been associated w ith defence against animals, healing of plant organ wounds, protection from harmful insects, resistance to microbial attacks and attraction of insccts and animals tbr pollination. Several species and varieties of plants, mostly those of commercial interest, were investigated systematically and in depth. Recently, various studies concerned with secretory structures and factors influencing their development have been undertaken by research groups in biological and pharmacological departments. Secretion is a common feature of living cells and involves the discharge of substances to the exterior (exotropic secretion) or into special intercellular cavities endotropic secretion). These are specialised cells...

Physiology and ecophysiology

As discussed, Cymbopogon has a photosynthetic machinery that allows the plant to perform high rates of carbon assimilation and, at the same time, save water. In species that produce essential oil, the biogenesis of terpenoids relies on photosynthetic carbon dioxide reduction on the one hand and availability of water and nutrients, on the other. For this reason several studies have been conducted in order to assess which nutrients and at what conditions were required for an optimal production of both biomass and essential oils. In this section, we will discuss the most important Cymbopogon species in terms of yield of biomass and essential oil production as related to nutrition. Furthermore, when available, references to biotechnological applications will be also reported. Changes in the utilization pattern of primary substrate, viz. U-C-14 acetate, (CO -C-14 and U-C-14 saccharose, and the contents of C-14 fixation products in photosynthetic metabolites (sugars, amino acids, and...

Convolvulus Sagittatus Root

Fig. 3.22 Bonabilines, unique alkaloids from the roots of Bonamia spectabilis (Convolvulaceae) highlighted in grey structurally related components of certain (non-convolvulaceous) essential oils for comparison. a-Pinene, myrtenol, and myrtenal are constituents of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L., Myrtaceae (Savikin-Fodulovic et al. 2000) the corresponding carboxylic acid, myrtenic acid, was detected as a constituent of the essential oil of Cedronella canariensis (L.) Webb. & Berthel., Lamiaceae (Engel et al. 1995) Fig. 3.22 Bonabilines, unique alkaloids from the roots of Bonamia spectabilis (Convolvulaceae) highlighted in grey structurally related components of certain (non-convolvulaceous) essential oils for comparison. a-Pinene, myrtenol, and myrtenal are constituents of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L., Myrtaceae (Savikin-Fodulovic et al. 2000) the corresponding carboxylic acid, myrtenic acid, was detected as a constituent of the essential oil of Cedronella...

General introduction to the genus Lavandula

Lamiaceae) are mainly grown for their essential oils, which are used in perfumery, cosmetics, food processing and nowadays also in 'aromatherapy' products. The dried flowers have also been used from time immemorial in pillows, sachets etc. for promoting sleep and relaxation. Numerous lavender plants are also sold as ornamental plants for the garden these include L. latifolia, L. pinnata, L. lanata, L. dentata and L. stoechas and their numerous cultivars. Lavender oil, distilled from L. angustifolia was used extensively in Victorian times as a perfume and applied in numerous cosmetic products, but now it is used mainly in combination with other essential oils and aromachemicals. This species and numerous hybrids cultivars, for example, Lavandin 'grosso' were originally grown in the South of France, but are now grown virtually round the world. True lavender oil, consisting mainly of linalool and linalyl acetate, has a very variable composition due to...

Rhodiola crenulata Crassulaceae

F. et Thomas) S. H. Fu occurs in southwestern China (Yunnan and Sichuan provinces) and in the Tibetan Autonomous Region. Y. Li et al. (2004) examined rhizomes of plants from these areas for their essential oils. Material from the two areas (Yunnan and Sichuan taken as one source area) shared a suite of ten compounds but differed in the relative amounts of certain individual components. The most striking differences were recorded for n-octanol (eight-carbon straight chain alcohol), whose content ranged from 13.4 to 21.0 of total oils for the three Tibetan populations, and from 29.6 to 33.6 for the four populations sampled in China. Levels of geraniol 18 ranged between 45.5 and 55.1 for Tibetan material, and between 14.8 and 26.9 for plants from the Chinese sites. No discussion of the significance of these results was forthcoming.

Hostmistletoe crypsis

Resemblance is greatest among species pairs occupying arid rather than humid parts of Australia (Barlow and Wiens 1977). Excluding the mistletoes from everwet northeastern forests (which show relatively broad host specificity) and the two endemic terrestrials, 78 of Australian loranths bear foliage resembling that of their hosts too closely for coincidence. Barlow and Wiens and others before them have postulated that vegetative similarity constitutes genetically based mimicry which has arisen independently many times in response to selective pressures and confers fitness by hiding mistletoe foliage within matrices of less palatable forage. Leaf form is supposedly especially convergent in Australia because the two dominant tree genera -Acacia and Eucalyptus - have become so well defended (i.e., relatively unpalatable because of sclerophyllous leaves containing the essential oils of Eucalyptus and the phenolics of Acacia) that the parasites have become attractive food items. Mistletoes...

Allergic and antiallergic activities

A series of EOs belonging to the Lamiaceae family were investigated as to their systemic allergic reactions using the prick-by-prick technique with dried commercial plants and prick tests with extracts. Skin tests with inhalants were positive to grasses as well as to ones with plants of the Lamiaceae family with the exception of basil and lavender. Plants belonging to the Lamiaceae seem to show a cross-sensitivity on the basis of clinical history and in vitro and in vivo test results (Benito et al., 1996). In contrast, contact allergy reactions to various EOs used in aromatherapy, such as lavender oil, jasmine and rosewood oil, were found. Laurel, eucalyptus and pomerance (bitter orange) produced positive skin reactions, thus showing an allergic airborne contact dermatitis. A similar dermatitis was reported on inhalation of lavender fragrance in Difflam gel (Schaller et al., 1995 Rademaker, 1994 Brandao, 1986). A facial 'pillow' dermatitis due to lavender oil allergy was also reported...

Other Species Of Artemisia Used In Traditional Chinese Medicine

According to a national survey of the medicinal plants of China, more than sixty Artemisia species are used in different areas for certain ailments such as inflammation, liver and stomach disorders and gynaecological problems (Table 1). The leaves of more than ten species are used for the preparation of moxas (see below). A number of Artemisia species are used as choleretic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic agents in the treatment of hepatitis. Two of these are A. scoparia and A. capillaris and are known by the same Chinese name as Yin Chen. Both species contain essential oils, flavones and coumarins. A flavone, capillarisin, the major constituent of A. capillaris, together with two new stereoisomeric constituents, capillartemisin A and B, showed choleretic effects in experiment studies. The coumarin derivative sco-parone isolated from both species had a preventative effect on carbon tetrachloride or galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in hepatocyte cell cultures, (Hikino, 1985, Kiso...

Summary Table Of The Principal Oil Compounds Of All Thymus Species Studied

The presentation of information found in all the publications on Thymus essential oils adequately requires a special attention due to the high variability in techniques, sources, etc. The time prior to I960 is covered by the publication of Gildemeister and Hoffmann (1961). From the analytical point of view, the publication of Gildemeister and Hoffmann represents a certain borderline because since that time analytical techniques, especially GC and later GC MS, have developed considerably. With respect to these earlier publications, a list of all Thymus species described only in the publication of Gildemeister and Hoffmann (1961) is given in Table 3.1. All the results from chemical research work on Thymus species from I960 to 2000 are summarised in Table 3.2. This Table 3.2 is intended to help the interested reader to consult original publications for further study. Table 3.2 is an expanded and updated version of Stahl-Biskup's 1991 table. It must be stressed that questioning chemical...

Primary Metabolites vs Secondary Metabolites

The terpenoids are probably the most numerous of secondary substances. They are subdivided into monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids (essential oils) diterpenoids, including resin acids triterpenoids (phytosterols, cardenolides, limonoids, etc.) and tetraterpenoids (carotenoids). The most visible terpenoids are the yellow to red carotenoid pigments present in flowers and fruits. Limonin gives lemon its characteristic taste. By contrast, volatile terpenoids give caraway and carrot their characteristic scents. While the role of primary metabolites is clear, the functions of secondary substances are still uncertain. The anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, together with the floral essential oils, are necessary to attract animals to flowers. The gibberellins, auxins, and cytokinins, together with abscisic acid and ethylene, control plant growth and development. Alkaloids and tannins deter animals from feeding on green tissues and thus are valuable to plants for limiting the extent of...

Goods and services of plantation forests

The functions and services of plantation forests are diverse. FAO for instance, makes a distinction between 'productive' and 'protective' plantations (FAO, 2006). Productive plantations are focused primarily on the production of industrial wood, fuelwood and non-wood forest goods (e.g. animal fodder, apiculture, essential oils, tan bark, cork, latex, food), whereas protective plantations are established to provide conservation, recreation, carbon sequestration, water quality control, erosion control and rehabilitation of degraded lands, which also includes landscape and amenity enhancement (e.g. Fuhrer, 2000 Shelton et al, 2001 Lamb et al, 2005).

Authentification of lavender essential oil

Lavender oil and a variety of other essential oils were tested for effects on the lipid-peroxidation-antioxidase defence system and lipid metabolism in 150 patients with chronic bronchitis (Siurin, 1997). There was a lowering of plasma levels of dienic conjugates and ketones, activation of catalase in red blood cells which the author stated was characteristic of an antioxidant effect on exposure to essential oils of rosemary, basil, fir and eucalyptus. However, lavender had a normalizing effect on the level of total lipids and the ratio of cholesterol to its alpha fraction. Anaesthetic activity of L. angustifolia essential oil was evaluated in vivo in the rabbit conjunctival reflex test and in vitro using the rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation (Ghelardini et al, 1999) against two citrus fruit essential oils (Citrus reticulata 'Blanco' and Citrus limon), with no medical uses. L. angustifolia and its components, linalool and linalyl acetate were able to drastically reduce...

Medicinal Uses Of 2-undecanone

Essential Oils from China The constituents of ginger oils prepared by different processes (cold dried, hot dried, or baked at 220 C) were compared by column chromatography and mass spectra (Ye et al., 1989). Odor assessments for volatile compounds of ginger essential oils from Taiwan by sniffing GC were carried out by Sheen et al. (1992a). Geranial, (3-sesquiphellandrene

Growing requirements General conditions

The L. x intermedia group of lavenders have a camphoraceous aroma (in the essential oil) and these varieties should only be used for craft purposes. Lavender skin care products and the use of lavender in aromatherapy is becoming more popular and many more people are looking to grow lavender for its oil production. The L. angustifolia lavenders produce lavender oil which is the best quality oil for aromatherapy or medicinal uses. The L. x intermedia lavenders produce an essential oil known as lavandin oil which has a high camphor content and is mainly used in fragrance and soap production. It is important when deciding which lavender variety to grow for oil to realise that the lavender oil type may produce better quality but fewer kilograms of oil, while the lavandin plants will produce more kilograms per acre, but the oil is of an inferior quality compared to the lavender essential oil.

Variability In Essential Oil Composition

Within the genus Thymus gynodioecy is widespread, revealing female and hermaphrodite plants. Two subspecies of T. serpylloides, ssp. gadorensis and ssp. serpylloides, were investigated with regard to the differences in oil yield and oil composition between female and hermaphrodite plants. Both subspecies belong to the phenolic group containing carvacrol as the main constituent of their essential oils. Concerning the variations of the carvacrol content in two different phenological stages (full flowering, fruiting) of T. serpylloides ssp. serpylloides, no significant differences in the percentages of carvacrol between hermaphrodite and female plants were found when the mean of three years was evaluated, although in one case a concentration of this component higher by 17 per cent

The Use in Seasonings

Most foods are not only seasoned with one spice but with a number of different tastes. The aroma industry is offering to the food industry a complete programme of different tastes produced of mixtures of spices, essential oils, oleoresins and all kinds off additives. The so called seasonings are compounds containing one or more spices or spice extracts, which, when added to the food, either during its manufacture or in its preparation, before it is served, enhance the natural flavour of the food and thereby increase its acceptance by the consumer. The following overlook is taken from Gerhardt (1990).

HMGCoA HydroxymethylglutarylCoA

The biosynthesis of 1,8-cineole is suggested from linalyl pyrophosphate (Clark et al., 2000). 1,8-cineole (or eucalyptol) is a biosynthetic dead end in many systems thus allowing accumulation of large quantities of this compound in many plants. Other than cardamom oil 1,8-cineole is also found in essential oils of artemisia, basil, betel leaves, black pepper, carrot leaf, cinnamon bark, leaf and of course in eucalyptus and in many other essential oil-yielding plants.

Evolution And Function Of Secondary Metabolites

Several SM have been used by mankind for thousands of years22,27 as dyes (e.g., indigo, shikonine), flavors (e.g., vanillin, capsaicin, mustard oils), fragrances (e.g., rose oil, lavender oil and other essential oils), stimulants (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, ephedrine), hallucinogens (e.g., morphine, cocaine, mescaline, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, tetrahydrocannabinol), insecticides (e.g., nicotine, piperine, pyrethrin), vertebrate and human poisons (e.g., coniine, strychnine, aconitine) and even therapeutic agents (e.g., atropine, quinine, cardenolides, codeine, etc.).

Experiments on in vitro cardiac preparations Method

A heart from a freshly killed rat or rabbit can be perfused with Krebs solution through the aortic arch by the method of Langendorf (1895) and the overall activity recorded by attaching a thread from the ventricles to a transducer. The perfused heart remains viable for several hours and the effect of essential oils on rate and force can be assessed on addition to the perfusion fluid and the mode of action investigated by the use of standard antagonists.

Natural changes in the oils due to different source or extraction process

(fixed oils like almond oil) is easily detected by putting a drop of the sample on blotting paper or a piece of cloth and looking for signs of a halo of grease remaining after a few hours (as pure essential oils would evaporate completely, leaving no residual mark). The determination of such adulteration of essential oils was perfected by the use of special enantiomeric or chiral columns, mainly composed of an a-cyclodextrin phase (Ravid et al, 1992 Lis-Balchin et al., 1998, 1999). Ravid et al. (1986) showed that lavender oil had (3R)-(-)-linalyl acetate of an optical purity of 93 per cent. In 1990, Mosandl and Schubert showed that genuine lavender oil had 100 per cent -(-)-linalyl acetate. It is worth noting that chiral columns can also be used by synthetic chemists and those involved in adulteration of essential oils, as the same type of column can be used to separate out the enantiomers, which could then be added in the correct proportion for a given essential oil Table 11.6...

Central depressive effects of Magnolia extracts 4421 Muscle relaxant effect

Muscle weakness in 2-3 min, followed by cessation of breathing and heart beat in a few minutes. In contrast, no marked behavioral symptoms, except for a slight decrease in spontaneous motor activity for a short period, were produced by oral administration of the water extract (2 g kg). In the case of the ether extract, however, both oral and intraperitoneal administrations resulted in strong muscle relaxation and disruption of clinging to a steel net for up to 90-120 min, without death. The ED50 values for the muscle relaxant effect of intraperitoneally administered ether extract of Magnolia and its alkaline soluble fraction were estimated to be 582 mg and 580 mg, respectively (Watanabe et al., 1975). The ethanol extract showed an intermediate effect between those of the water and ether extracts. These results indicate that the strong lethal effect of intraperitoneally injected water extract is caused by the peripherally mediated curare-like muscle relaxant action of magnocurarine and...

Experiments on in vitro bronchial preparations Method

Reiter and Brandt (1985) reported the actions of several essential oils and their components on tracheal and intestinal smooth muscle including some components of Lavandula oils but not the oil itself. Linalool is spasmolytic, with intestinal muscle being more sensitive than tracheal. Linalool is one of many components and oils studied by Brandt (1988) and found to be spasmolytic on guinea-pig ileum and trachea. Alpha- and jS-pinene, which are major components of the oil of L. dentata L., also relax guinea-pig tracheal muscle (Lis-Balchin and Hart, 2000).

Cunila galioides Lamiaceae

According to a recent paper by Echeverrigaray et al. (2003), the genus Cunila consists of 22 species with two centers of diversity, Mexico with 10 species, and southern South America with the remaining 12. Cunila galioides plants were collected from 20 sites, 15 in Rio Grande do Sul State and five in Santa Catarina State, and subjected to analysis of their essential oils. Of the 40 compounds identified, 14 were present in levels above 10 (of the total oil yield) and were used for statistical analysis. Three chemotypes emerged from the analysis group 1 (the citral group, C10 acyclic aldehyde) group 2 (the ocimene group, C10 acyclic alkene) and group 3 (the menthene group, C10 cyclic derivatives). Note each group consisted primarily of compounds related to the group type. Geographic differentiation was clearly indicated by the various treatments with group 1 occurring in the northeast plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, group 2 occurring in grasslands at higher elevations, and group 3...

Herbs and Spices

Many herbs and spices are edible but may be distinguished from fruits and vegetables by their lack of food value, as measured in calories. Unlike fruits and vegetables, their usefulness has less to do with their primary metabolites (e.g., sugars and proteins) than with their secondary metabolites (compounds commonly produced to discourage pathogens and predators). The distinct flavors and smells of spices and culinary herbs are usually due to essential oils, while the active components of medicinal herbs also include many kinds of steroids, alkaloids, and glycosides. Most plants referred to as herbs or spices contain many different secondary compounds.

General Procedures

In several (European) pharmacopoeias an assay is included for the determination of essential oils in vegetable drugs. This is a hydrodistillation in a specially designed apparatus. The distillate is collected in a calibrated tube, whereas the aqueous phase is automatically returned to the distillation flask. After determination of the volume, yielding the essential oil content as percentage v m, the samples can be stored at -20 C until analysed for their composition using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Below, the experimental conditions are given for GC and GC-MS analysis as applied successfully in our laboratory for essential oils (Woerdenbag et al., 1993a, 1994b, Bos et al, 1996). Prior to GC and GC-MS analysis, the samples are diluted 50 times with cyclohexane.

Control Measures

One of the major aspects of plant pathology is to enhance crop production by introducing genetically improved (high-yielding, less susceptible to pathogens) cultivars, enhanced soil fertility via chemical fertilisation, pest control via synthetic pesticides, and irrigation. Besides physical control methods e.g. mowing, slashing, burning, flooding, hand removal, physical barriers (i.e. netting, fences), use of pesticides is very common method for controlling various phytopathogens. The use of synthetic pesticides in the US began in the 1930s and became widespread after World War II. By 1950, pesticide was found to increase farm yield far beyond pre-World War II levels. Farmers depend heavily on synthetic pesticides to control insects in their crops. There are many classes of synthetic pesticides. The main classes consist of organochlorines (e.g., Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT, toxaphene, dieldrin, aldrin), organophosphates (e.g., diazinon, glyphosate, malathion), carbamates...

Concluding Remarks

The results described above indicate that V. zizanioides is an NADP-ME type C4 plant. The combination of economic (production of essential oils), ecological (prevention of soil erosion) and symbiotic properties (endobacteria) and the ease with which callus induction and plant regeneration can be obtained from leaf explants (Mucciarelli et al., 1993), as well as its high C4 photosynthetic efficiency and the ability to retain a high enzyme activity, even when cultivated in temperate climates, make this plant an interesting object for future applications.

Ecological Aspects

Thymes are very resistant plants, which allows them to live under extreme climatic conditions concerning temperature and water supply. They do not avoid either cold or aridness. Dense and tomentose hairs as well as acicular leaves enable some species to support very dry conditions. The high production of essential oils can also be an adaptive characteristic for dry climate, because the volatile substances evaporate and produce a saturated atmosphere around the plant that makes the loss of water more difficult. Especially some species of the section Serpyllum can live in very cold climate, like T. glacialis in Siberia or T. praecox in Greenland. From an ecological point of view we can find the following correlation bushy, woody, and erect plants are widely distributed in dry climates, whereas in more fresh and humid climates usually plants with flat leaves and woody only at the base are more common. The latter usually are herbaceous with creeping or lying stems. Such species mostly...

Preliminary review

These lavender type oils can be extracted from the flowers by steam distillation. Being the products of distillation they are, by definition, 'essences' and are called 'essential oils'. For the purposes of distillation they belong to the class of superficial oils from absorptive surfaces because they are wholly secreted on the surface of the herb and the calices' hairy character gives them an absorptive surface. The oil's distillation proceeds differently from that for subcutaneous oils or those from less absorptive herbs.

Phyto Chemistry

The chemistry of the essential oil of davana has been more extensively studied than any other aspect of this plant. Further, most of these studies have been carried out only after 1970 and not in India, where davana oil is exclusively produced, but in other countries. The reasons for these facts are not difficult to guess. Although the cultivation of davana is restricted to a small geographical area in south India, studies on the chemistry of its essential oil are not restricted by any such agro-climatic requirements and hence could be carried out anywhere. The availability of commercial quantities of davana oil only after 1970 (Sugunakar, 1987), and relatively easy accessibility to modern analytical instrumental facilities for evaluating the quality of essential oils in developed countries, may also be a reason for more studies on this oil having been carried out after 1970 and outside India further, the oil is hardly used in India.


Terpenes (terpenoids) are a very large family of plant compounds that play a variety of roles in many different plants. All terpenes are constructed from isoprenoid units by biochemically unusual pathways involving highly reactive intermediates. The hemiterpene isoprene, which contains five carbons (one isoprene unit), is a gas emitted into the atmosphere by many plant species, where it plays a role in the chemistry of ozone production. A monoterpene (monoterpenoid) contains ten carbons (two isoprene units) a sesquiterpene, fifteen carbons (three isoprene units) a diterpene, twenty carbons (four isoprene units). Triterpenes (thirty carbons) are important structural components of plant cell membranes. Many plant pigments, including the yellow and red carotenoids, are tetraterpenes (forty carbons). Natural rubber is a polyterpene containing many isoprene units. The mono-terpenes and sesquiterpenes are common components of the essential oils of herbs and spices (peppermint, lavender), of...

Reinhold Carle

Essential oils are steam-volatile mixtures of complex natural substances of plant origin. In some cases, over a hundred different chemical compounds can be detected in an essential oil. Presently, a total of 3000 defined compounds are known 15, 16, 19 . The wide range of application of volatiles is due to the existence of an extensive diversity of compounds in essential oils. A market survey (Table 8.3.1) shows that essential oils are mainly used in the food industry and in the perfume industry. However, some essential oils, e.g., chamomile oil, are especially important in the pharmaceutical industry. The increase in industrially processed foods has constantly increased the demand for flavoring agents over the last ten years. The world production of natural essential oils is estimated at around 45,000 tons per annum. The price of essential oils ranges between 1.25 Euro kg for orange oil and 60,000 Euro kg for genuine Melissa oil (Table 8.3.2). Therefore, genuine essential oils are...


Osmophores, also called floral scent glands, possess the ability to emit volatiles and comprise defined floral organs.3,4 They can be found within the whole inflorescence as part of the perianth, bracts, appendices of peduncles, or anthers. Although osmophores might vary in shape and habitus, being plane-, whip-, brush-, club-, or palp-shaped, they have features in common. They usually face toward the adaxial side of the perianth and display a bullate, rugose, pileate, conical, or papillate epidermis (Figure 6.1).3,5-10 Subjacent are several cell layers that form the glandular tissue, which merge into normal parenchyma cell layers.4-6 Cells of the glandular tissue show enlarged nuclei compared to cells of nearby tissue and a dense cytoplasm.4-6 A dispersed vacuome observed before and at anthesis, often turns into a large vacuole after anthesis.6 Transmission electron microscopy revealed that cells of the glandular layers are supplied with an abundant rough or smooth endoplasmic...

Essential Aromatherapy

Essential Aromatherapy

Have you always wanted to know what is aromatherapy? Here are some invaluable information on aromatherapy. I leave absolutely nothing out! Everything that I learned in order to improve my life with aromatherapy I share with you.

Get My Free Ebook