Pests

Insects, mites and nematodes that damage the citrus plants are numerous but not all provoke outstanding economic damages. Biocenosis of the citrus orchard is particularly rich and subject to an introduction of new species, therefore the list of pests is liable to change. This chapter presents a list of some pests (Table 4.1), classified according to Couilloud (1991), and a synthetic description of the damages caused by them. Ebeling (1959), Chapot and Delucchi (1964), Talhouk (1975), Di Mardno (1985), Jeppson (1989), Davis and Albrigo (1994), can be consulted for a deeper study of pests present in certain citrus areas. On citrus trees, pests may be found on the roots, trunks, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. They spread through various methods both at short and long distances. The strengthening of the means of communication and the massive movement of people have favoured the introduction of new pests and diseases in the different citrus zones, making control difficult. Pests provoke damages to the plants, at times specific, which can generically be grouped.

Mites damage buds, they nourish themselves by damaging the fruits, provoking silvering, deformation and drop of the leaves. On the fruits mites provoke discolouration and russeting.

Table 4.1 Some representative citrus pests

Class

Group

Species

Common name

Arachnida

Mites

Aceria sheldoni Phyllocoptruta oleivora Brevipalpus phoenicis Panonychus citri Tetranycbus urticae

Citrus bud mite Citrus rust mite False spider mite Citrus red mite Common red spider

Insecta

Whitefiies

Aleurocanthus woglumi A leurothrixus floccosus Dialeurodes citri

Citrus blackfly Woolly whitefly Citrus whitefly

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