Industrial cold-pressed oils

In Table 13.13 are reported the results relative to the composition of bergamot oils industrially produced, found in literature in this period.

In this table are not included the results obtained by Zani etal. (1991) for a sample of bergamot oil produced in Calabria (Italy). In fact in this sample was determined an unusual amount of camphene (0.93 per cent). This value could be probably due to some contamination of the sample analysed.

The values in Table 13.13 show that bergamot oil is subject to wide ranges of variation in its composition. These changes, as proved by many authors, could be due to the period of harvest of the fruits, (Calvarano, M., 1968; Huet and Puduis, 1969; Dugo etal., 1987, 1991; Dugo, 1994; Verzera etal., 1996b, 1998), to the cultivar of the fruits (Verzera etal., 1996b) and to the area of cultivation of the fruits (Huet and Dupuis, 1969), also for very close fields, as has been noticed in Calabria (Dugo etal., 1987, 1991; Verzera etal., 1998). The most evident changes are, however, noticed during the productive season, in particular for linalool and linalyl acetate. The former, as shown in Figure 13.4 (Dugo, 1994), varied, for a bergamot oil produced in Calabria, during the productive season, from 13 per cent to about 6 per cent; the latter, during the same period varied from an average content of 25 per cent at the beginning of the season, to that of 31 per cent at the end. The ratio linalool/linalyl acetate varied from 0.5 to 0.2. This behaviour has been confirmed for different years of production, although some differences of the average content of these components were determined (Dugo etal., 1991) among different years. As mentioned above, the composition of bergamot oil also depends on the cultivar of the fruits used. For oils produced in Calabria (Italy) it has

Table 13-13 Percentage composition of the volatile fraction of cold-pressed bergamot oil

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