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Diagram showing (a) pump (b) oil slurry outlet (c) centrifuge (d) decantation tanks (e) essential oil collector (f) juice extraction line (g) fruit loading hopper (h) fruit de-oiling pathway (i) de-oiled fruit discharge outlet. The process involves folding and pressing the peel several times with a circular motion against a series of natural sponges arranged around a terracotta dish (concolina). The sponges are held in place by means of a bar across the top of the dish....

Taxonomy

According to the Engler system the plant kingdom has thirteen divisions the thirteenth (Embryophyta Siphonogama) corresponds to the Spermathophyta. Lower taxonomic ranks are the following Subdivision Angiospermae Class Monocotyledoneae Order Geraniales Family Rutaceae Although other subfamilies exist within the Rutaceae, all citrus belong to the Aurantioideae subfamily, that includes two tribes the Clauseneae, that are the very remote and remote citroid fruit trees, with five genera, and the...

Introduction

The products resulting from the processing of cirrus are the juices, the essential oils and the peel. The latter, together with the pulp and seeds, are the industrial residue and account for 40 60 per cent of the weight of the raw material. The utilization of this residue is a fundamental requirement of the fruit processing industry, not only for economical reasons, but also to reduce the severe environmental impact that this could produce. The main by-products produced from this residue, are...

Morphology

In order to study the morphology of citrus, the different plant organs will be considered in detail. The root system of citrus trees is usually formed by a rootstock that frequently correspond to a different species than the variety. The main rootstocks used in Citriculture are the following Common name Alemow or Kolo Carrizo citrange Cleopatra mandarin Palestine sweet lime Rangpur lime Rough lemon Sour orange Sweet orange Trifoliate Troyer citrange Botanical name C, macrophylla Wester C....

Preservation And Storage

In order to avoid deterioration of citrus essential oils during storage, it is necessary to protect them from the deleterious effects of atmospheric oxygen, light, heat, residual traces of moisture and acidity, and to avoid contact with metallic surfaces which may act as oxidation catalysts, etc. Although cold-pressed oils contain natural antioxidants, they also contain many unsaturated components, such as terpenes, which polymerise easily and form resinous materials, thus provoking alteration...

References

Baker, D.M. (1980) Petitgram-Paraguay. Distillation technology. PAP AI J., 3(2), 137-141. Cadillat, R.M. (1969) Observation on essential oils of citrus. Fruits, 24, 389 405. Gildmeister, E. and Hoffmann, F. (1959) Die therischen le, Vol. 5, 627 639- Akademie Verlag, Berlin. Guenther, E. (1949) The Essential Oils. Vol. 3 D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, NY. Igolen, M. (1946) Oranger Bigaradier. Ind. Perfumerie, (1), 3-12. La Face, R. (1942) Le essenze di petitgrain. Bollettino Ufficiale Stazione...

Factors Which Influence The Quality Of Essential Oils

The quality of citrus essential oils obviously depends to a large extent on factors deriving from the nature of the fruit itself (provenance, type of soil, climate, citrus variety), but the processing of the fruit also has a significant effect. Variety, maturity and storage of fruit The physical properties of essential oils can be dependent at a certain stage, on the fruit varieties used, on their maturity and on the storage time that proceeds the industrial transformation. Some information,...

Coldpress Extraction Of Essential Oils

Heated Rolers Press For Oil Extraction

Rodano (1930) identified three distinct types of phenomena that occur during the cold-press extraction of essential oils from citrus fruit 1 rupture of the epidermis and of the oil glands that contain the oil 2 creation in the peel, of compressed areas, surrounded by areas which are under less pressure, through which the oil can be expressed 3 abrasion of the peel, producing small pieces of debris. Essential oil can be extracted either from the whole fruit or from the peel. When the whole fruit...

Essential Oils

As opposed to many other types of fruit whose homogeneity makes them more suitable for industrial use, the complexity and variability in the different layers of the structure of citrus fruits has been a determining factor in slowing the development of systems used in the production of their derivatives. It is true that essential oil from citrus fruit may issue from peel when the peel is simply cut, scraped or squeezed. Consequently, its knowledge coincides with the introduction of citrus...

Methods Of Separation

The recovery of essential oil from the emulsion obtained during the extraction phase is a crucial step in the processing cycle. When the extraction is performed manually, either by the sponge process or the ecuelle method, water is not used and the tissues of the peel are only subjected to superficial grazing. In this case the liquid extracted separates rapidly after standing, into three layers the upper layer is practically pure essential oil which merely needs to be filtered through paper the...