English Language Software
Acknowledgments The authors are indebted to Dr. Michael C. F. Proctor for valuable discussions on the plants' desiccation-tolerance strategies during the last 2 decades. We are also grateful to Dr. Zoltan Szabo for preparation of the reference list, to Szilvia Hajdu for her technical help, and to Ms. Gabrielle Johnson for English language assistance. H.K. Lichtenthaler wants to thank his friend and scientific colleague, the late Zoltan Tuba, for 25 years of excellent, very stimulating discussions, and close scientific cooperation in the ecophysiology of plants and their photosyn-thetic apparatus.
To find how lavender has been used in literature and plays, the 'e-texts' available on Literature Online (www.lion.chadwyck.co.uk) were searched. These databases cover over 260,000 works in the English language. Ideally, mentions of lavender in works in other languages and cultures should be covered and contrasted, however, this was beyond the scope of the present chapter.
Epicuticular waxes have been extensively studied with SEM. Each plant species exhibits a characteristic fine structure which is a reflection of its chemical constitution (Fig. 1.3). The most recent review is that by Jeffree (2006), who classifies surface waxes as granules, filaments, plates, tubes, rods and background wax films. Jeffree (2006) remarks that the range of types of epicuticular wax structures recognised very nearly consumes the available words in the English language. The SEM does not tell us if epicuticular waxes are amorphous or crystalline. If the wax bloom is sufficiently thick to scatter light, the leaf and fruit surfaces appear matt, bluish
One of the two sampling sites in Scotland, was established in 1987 and began monitoring pollen in 1988. In addition to two volunteer scientists who helped to establish and develop the Pollen Centre's work, a succession of job seeking youngsters, opted to work in the centre to acquire some basic scientific and organizational skills to help them gain full time employment. In 1989, the first of an annual succession of French students - more than 40 - from the universities of Montpellier, Toulon and Bordeaux, requested to come and work for the six-eight weeks of their placement (stage) to gain experience of working in a scientific institute and to augment their knowledge of English language. These students were from Institute of Health (Montpellier), Institute Universite de la Sante (I.U.S.) and technology (Toulon and Bordeaux) Institute Universite de Technologie (I.U.T.) From time to time the centre has welcomed for various periods of time, pollen specialists from Greece, the Netherlands...
While the storage organ of the Jerusalem artichoke is anatomically a tuber (i.e., an underground structure consisting of a solid thickened portion or outgrowth of a stem or rhizome, of a more or less rounded form, and bearing eyes or buds from which new plants arise (Simpson and Weiner, 1989)), in the early literature it is referred to as a root. This is because the term tuber, derived from the Latin tuber, was not in the English language until 1668, when it was first used by Wilkins in his Essay towards a Real Character, and Philosophical Language (Wilkins, 1668).
I collected a large sample of English-language scientific and popular publications about kudzu.1 Using several electronic databases Agricola, Applied Science and Technology Abstracts, Biological and Agricultural Index, Biology Digest, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Current Contents, Dissertation Abstracts, Environment, General Science Abstracts, Geobase, CARL, and the General Academic Index as well as such traditional print indices such as Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, I searched under both the English and Latin names for the plant, and examined the bibliography in each located source for new references. I identified over 300 English-language sources published since 1917, and examined 110 (108 articles and two masters' theses). Since published research about kudzu has increased tremendously since 1985, it was impossible to read each article, but I have sampled approximately 31 per cent of this more recent literature (sixty articles).
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