Mantle in plan views

The most informative anatomical features are in the ectomycorrhizal mantle as seen in plan views (Agerer et al., 1990). Of special importance is the surface view of the mantle, i.e. the plan view of the outermost mantle layer. Two basic types can be distinguished: (1) plectenchy-matous mantles, in which the hyphae can be recognized individually (Fig. 10A-I); and (2) pseudoparenchymatous mantles, in which the individual hyphae that have formed these mantle cells cannot be distinguished because they have been enlarged and have lost their original form (Fig. 10K-P), thus resembling a true parenchyma.

Nine main types of plectenchymatous mantles can actually be distinguished; some examples are compiled in Table VII to facilitate the search for species with such mantles. The nine main types are:

(1) Plectenchymatous mantles with a net-like arrangement of hyphal bundles (Fig. 10A).

(2) Plectenchymatous mantles where such a hyphal pattern is lacking and in which the hyphae grow in a rather irregular manner over the mantle surface often preferentially arranged in longitudinal directions (Fig. 10B).

TABLE VII

Examples of the different mantle types

TABLE VII

Examples of the different mantle types

A'

' Xerocomus chrysenteron Boletus edulis Leccinum scabrum

B

Dermocybe cinnamomea Lactarius deliciosus Hebeloma edurum

C

Piceirhiza gelatinosa Lactarius porninsis Elaphomyces muricatus

D Thelephora terrestris Gomphidius glutinosus Tuber puberulum

E

Rhizopogon luteolus

F

Boletinus cavipes Suillus plorans Suillus flavus

G

Cenococcum geophilum Pinirhiza spinulosa

H

Russula xerampelina Lactarius alpinus

I

Lactarius picinus Lactarius fuliginosus

K

Piceirhiza nigra

L

Fagirhiza fusca

M

Lactarius vellereus

N

Russula laricina

O

Russula ochroleuca

P

Lactarius subdulcis

"Letters A-P refer to Fig. 10.

Compiled from: Agerer (1986b, 1987c, 1991a), Brand and Agerer (1986), Gronbach and Agerer (1986), Biaschke (1987), Gronbach (1988), Uhl (1988a), Agerer and Weiss (1989), Brand (1989, 1991), Müller and Agerer (1990a) and Treu (1990a).

"Letters A-P refer to Fig. 10.

Compiled from: Agerer (1986b, 1987c, 1991a), Brand and Agerer (1986), Gronbach and Agerer (1986), Biaschke (1987), Gronbach (1988), Uhl (1988a), Agerer and Weiss (1989), Brand (1989, 1991), Müller and Agerer (1990a) and Treu (1990a).

Fig. 10. Schematic drawings of different mantle types in surface view; (A)-(I), plectenchymatous mantles (after Agerer et al., 1990). For explanation, see text.

(3) Plectenchymatous mantles with a gelatinous matrix. The hyphae are embedded in a gelatinous substance originating from the hyphal walls (Fig. 10C).

(4) Plectenchymatous mantles, with hyphae arranged in a net-like formation and bearing prominent cystidia (Fig. 10D).

(5) Plectenchymatous mantles with net-like hyphal arrangement produced by multiply-branched, squarrose hyphae (Fig. 10E).

(6) Plectenchymatous mantles with patches of roundish cells lying on the mantle consisting of otherwise normally shaped hyphae (Fig. 10F).

1990). For explanation, see text.

(7) Plectenchymatous mantles with hyphae in star-like arrangements which are tightly glued together (Fig. 10G).

(8) A transitional type between the plectenchymatous and pseudo-parenchymatous mantle, in which irregularly shaped hyphae form a coarse net (Fig. 10H).

(9) Plectenchymatous mantles with approximately perpendicularly protruding, stout and often slightly curved hyphal end-cells, which are filled with oily droplets (Fig. 101).

Six main types of pseudoparenchymatous mantles are known at present (Fig. 10K-P):

(1) Pseudoparenchymatous mantles composed of angular cells, bearing mounds of roundish cells (Fig. 10K).

(2) Pseudoparenchymatous mantles with angular cells (Fig. 10L).

(3) Pseudoparenchymatous mantles with epidermoid cells which have the appearance of cells of a leaf epidermis (Fig. 10M).

(4) Pseudoparenchymatous mantles with some cells containing oil droplets, stainable in sulfovanillin (Fig. ION).

(5) Pseudoparenchymatous mantles with angular cells bearing mounds of flattened cells (Fig. 100).

(6) Pseudoparenchymatous mantles with angular cells bearing a delicate hyphal net (Fig. 10P).

The hyphae below the outer mantle surface often change shape gradually and the inner mantle layers are mostly composed of normal hyphae, which form a loose or a dense plectenchymatous layer (Figs 5, 6D). Only occasionally is a pseudoparenchymatous layer present (Fagi-rhiza arachnoidea: Brand, 1991). Laticifers, characteristic of Lactarius ectomycorrhiza (Peyronel, 1934; Agerer, 1986b; Brand and Agerer, 1986; Agerer et al., 1990; Ingleby et al., 1990), can be found mostly within inner mantle layers. Species-specific differences occur regarding ramification, septa, dimensions and colour of contents (Peyronel, 1934; Agerer, 1986b; Gronbach, 1988; Brand, 1991).

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