Mechanisms of Metal Tolerance in ECMF

Metal tolerance may be defined as the genetically conditioned ability to grow and reproduce in environments with high concentrations of potentially toxic metals (Hartley et al. 1997). A metal-tolerant organism must be able to maintain metal homeostasis in the presence of high metal concentrations, controlling the concentrations of free metal ions in the cytosol. A multitude of mechanisms were proposed to contribute to metal tolerance in ECMF (Hartley et al. 1997 Leyval et al. 1997). Avoidance...