S9

Capsule Cap + S9 0.5 Cap + S9 1 Cap + S92 Cap + S93

Sample S9

Capsule Cap + S9 0.5 Cap + S9 1 Cap + S92 Cap + S93

FIGURE 13.5 HPLC analysis showing degradation of peaks 1(A) and 2(B) upon addition of human liver microsome fraction S9. Samples tested were the S9 alone, dried root capsule alone, and dried root capsule + S9 at incubation times of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours.

FIGURE 13.5 HPLC analysis showing degradation of peaks 1(A) and 2(B) upon addition of human liver microsome fraction S9. Samples tested were the S9 alone, dried root capsule alone, and dried root capsule + S9 at incubation times of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours.

conclusions

Echinacea products stimulate cell production and are used in pharmaceutical preparations in Europe to treat both viral and bacterial respiratory illnesses, wound infections, and other infirmities. They are also used by cancer patients to increase production of white blood cells after therapeutic treatments. Although some patients may prepare their own extracts, the majority of patients use commercial products. The study reported here was performed on products purchased from a local store in three different forms — ethanolic tincture, glycerol extract, and dried root complex capsules — and incorporated the addition of S9 microsomal fractions from human liver in bioassays. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the effect of Echinacea products on tumor inhibition, using a

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