Pamela S Coker and N Dwight Camper

contents

Antimicrobial Activity Experimental Protocol Results and Discussion Antineoplastic Activity: Potato Tumor Induction Assay Experimental Protocol Results and Discussion Antineoplastic Activity: Cell Proliferation Assay Experimental Protocol Results and Discussion Mutagenicity Activity

Experimental Protocol Results and Discussion Constituent Analysis

Experimental Protocol Results and Discussion Conclusions

Ethanolic Tinctures Glycerol Extract Dried Root Complex Acknowledgment References introduction

Echinacea species (coneflowers) are important plants in both the pharmaceutical and ornamental industries. Echinacea, a genus of the Aster family, is represented by nine species found only in the U.S. and south-central Canada. More than 200 pharmaceuticals are made from coneflowers in Germany alone (Foster and Duke, 1990). Commercial West German Echinacea preparations utilize extracts of aboveground parts and roots. Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.) is widely cultivated in gardens and grows wild in some places (Hobbs, 1989).

Echinacea was introduced in the U.S. market in 1871 by a patent medicine vendor in Nebraska (Tyler, 1993). Traditional medicinal uses of this species include an immunostimulant for flu and colds, wound healing, and throat infections. Most frequent major therapeutic and prophylactic applications are for chronic and recurrent infections of respiratory and urogenital organs, chronic inflammations/allergies, tonsillitis and sinusitis, infected wounds, eczema and psoriasis, chronic bronchitis and prostatitis, and malignant diseases (Bauer and Wagner, 1991). Both cortisone-like

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