O

14 Me-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH=CH-C-NH-CH2-CHC

15 Me-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH=CH-C-NH-CH2-CHC

FIGURE 5.1 Alkamides found in Echinacea species.

The rhizomes proved to be very rich in these constituents, which included compounds previously found in rhizomes of both E. purpurea and E. angustifolia. Thus, the conjugated 2,4-dienoic acid amides 9, 11, 13, and 17 have all been reported from rhizomes of E. purpurea, while the monoenoic acid amides 1, 3, and 10 are typical of the rhizomes of E. angustifolia. The trans/trans isomer of 11, (2E,4E)-N-isobutylundeca-2,4-diene-8,10-diynamide (24) (Figure 5.2), was found for the first time in fresh rhizomes of E. atrorubens and was shown to increase in concentration after storage, suggesting that it is formed by decomposition of 11. As in E. purpurea and E. angustifolia, the

Coping with Asthma

Coping with Asthma

If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.

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