O

14 Me-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH=CH-C-NH-CH2-CHC

15 Me-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH=CH-CH=CH-C-NH-CH2-CHC

FIGURE 5.1 Alkamides found in Echinacea species.

The rhizomes proved to be very rich in these constituents, which included compounds previously found in rhizomes of both E. purpurea and E. angustifolia. Thus, the conjugated 2,4-dienoic acid amides 9, 11, 13, and 17 have all been reported from rhizomes of E. purpurea, while the monoenoic acid amides 1, 3, and 10 are typical of the rhizomes of E. angustifolia. The trans/trans isomer of 11, (2E,4E)-N-isobutylundeca-2,4-diene-8,10-diynamide (24) (Figure 5.2), was found for the first time in fresh rhizomes of E. atrorubens and was shown to increase in concentration after storage, suggesting that it is formed by decomposition of 11. As in E. purpurea and E. angustifolia, the

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