FIGURE 7.9 Electropherogram of E. angustifolia and E. pallida root (a) and E. purpurea and E. pallida root (b) mixtures. The arrows evidence peaks specific to E. angustifolia (an), E. pallida (pal), or E. purpurea (pur). Peaks: echinacoside (1), 6-O-caffeoyl-echinacoside (3), chlorogenic acid (5), isochlorogenic acid (6), cynarine (7), caffeic acid (8), isochlorogenic acid II (9), 2-caffeoyl-tartaric acid (10), and cichoric acid (11). (From Pietta, P.G. et al., 1998, Planta Med., 64: 649-652. With permission.)

a particular component, that is, isomers that provide identical spectra. The use of authentic standards for comparing elution times and spectra is required for unequivocal structural identification.

Among the different ionization techniques, the electrospray (ESI) and thermospray ionization (TSP) mass spectrometry appear particularly well suited, since these involve soft ionization that produces in most cases only protonated molecular ions [M + H]+ without fragmentation.

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Coping with Asthma

Coping with Asthma

If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.

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