FIGURE 12.3 Macrophage stimulation following simulated digestion protocol of different preparations of E. purpurea herb extracts measured by TNF-a secretion. Data represent the mean TNF-a levels (pg/ml) ± standard deviation following 24 hours of stimulation. (A) Dried herb powder used to produce samples B, D, E, F, and G. (B) E. purpurea extract standardized to 4% phenolic compounds. (C) Isobutylamide extract from dried E. angustifolia roots. (D) HPUS ethanol extract. (E) E. purpurea fresh plant juicing (screw press). (F) Homogenate of fresh E. purpurea aerial parts. (G) CPT-121 pilot preparation.

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