Cooh

FIGURE 5.9 Tartaric acid esters of cinnamic acids found in Echinacea species.

pallida. Similarly, the absence of echinacoside distinguishes E. purpurea from E. pallida and E. angustifolia.

Cichoric acid (58) has been shown to exhibit phagostimulatory activity in vitro, whereas echinacoside and caftaric acid (65) did not (Bauer et al., 1989b). Cichoric acid was found also to inhibit hyaluronidase activity (Facino et al., 1993). Both cichoric acid and echinacoside have been demonstrated to dose-dependently protect the free radical-induced degradation of Type III collagen by a reactive scavenging effect, suggesting they could help prevent UV-B damage to the skin (Facino et al., 1995).

acknowledgments

We are indebted to Dr. G.P. Moss of Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, for checking that the structures quoted conform to IUPAC nomenclature.

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