Echinacea as an immunomodulator

When the clinical and in vivo studies of Echinacea are carefully examined, most conclude that the herb increases phagocytic activity. Even the polysaccharides only enhance macrophage activity and killing (Bauer and Wagner, 1991). Phagocytic cells are part of nonspecific immunity. What is often not appreciated is that the activities of phagocytic cells, especially macrophages, are a key element of immune surveillance. The macrophage secretes several immune-enhancing cytokines and pro cesses...