Kerry Bone

Introduction What Is Echinacea What Makes Echinacea Work Caffeic Acid Derivatives Polysaccharides Lipophilic Components Quality Issues with Echinacea Products Limitations on the Use of Echinacea Traditional Use Does Not Support Limitations Modern Research Does Not Support Limitations Echinacea in Autoimmunity and Asthma Echinacea as an Immunomodulator Conclusions References Echinacea is probably the most widely used herbal product in the English-speaking world. However, despite its popularity,...

References

Apsit, V.J. and Dixon, P.M., 2GG1, Genetic diversity and population structure in Echinacea laevigata (Boynton and Beadle) Blake, an endangered plant species, Nat. Areas J., 21 71-77. Avise, John C., 2GGG, Phylogeography The History and Formation of Species, Harvard University Press, Cambridge. Avise, J.C. and Hamrick, J.L., Eds., 1996, Conservation Genetics Case Histories from Nature, Chapman and Hall, New York. Baskauf, C.J., McCauley, D.E. and Eickmeier, W.G., 1994, Genetic analysis of a rare...

Heci Yu and Matti Kaarlas

Introduction Popularity of Echinacea Publications Cultivation Consumers Market Diversity of Echinacea Species Variety and Other Factors Methodology and Laboratories Regions Plant Parts Component Levels at Plant Development Stage Legislation, Pharmacopoeias, and Monographs Quality Standardization of Echinacea Active Markers Standardization Conclusion Acknowledgments References During the last decade, along with growing interest in CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) therapy and changes...

Table 911

Regulation of Echinacea species and Parts by Various Organizations World Health Organization (1999) European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (1999) German Commission E British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (1996) Roots, leaves, flower, herbal powdered, and powdered extract Roots Roots, herbal powdered, and powdered extract Roots, herbal powdered, and powdered extract Source Data from World Health Organization, 1999, WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, vol. 1, WHO, Geneva, pp. 136-144....

Table 161

The Effect of 7 Days of Simultaneous Administration of Dietary Melatonin3 + E. Purpureab on Hemopoietic Cell Lineages of Spleen and Bone Marrow a Melatonin given in the ground chow as 14.2 mg mouse day. b E. purpurea given in the ground chow as 0.45 mg mouse day. c Determined from differential counts of 2,000 total nucleated cells organ (enumerated by means of an electronic cell counter) and converted to absolute numbers of cells in each morphologically identifiable lineage. d Mean standard...

Info

FIGURE 11.1 Chemiluminescence test (third to sixth days after termination). FIGURE 11.2 Chemiluminescence test (twelfth to twenty-second day of testing). FIGURE 11.2 Chemiluminescence test (twelfth to twenty-second day of testing). the chemotactic migration of granulocytes (Wildfeuer and Mayerhofer, 1994). In the macrophages that were influenced by E. purpurea and E. pallida, an increased production of TNF-a and the induction of the interleukins IL-1 and IL-6 and interferon were described by...

What Species Echinacea Is Most Medicinal

Web Pages about Echinacea Found via Major Search Engines, August 2001 and 2002 Search Increase ( ) Pages Year Google Alta Vista Lycos related to Echinacea found when using some search engines has reached 100,000 to 450,000 per year (Table 9.3). It can be seen that the popularity of Echinacea is dramatically increasing along with the rising popularity of CAM worldwide. The current areas of cultivation of Echinacea now extend beyond North America and Europe, into South America (Berti et al.,...

Moumita Sarkar and Gideon Koren

Introduction Pregnancy Facts Pregnancy Indications Risk Perception Toxicity Length of Exposure Check Labels Alcohol Content Interactions Lactation Conclusion Acknowledgment References Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is an umbrella term that covers a number of healthcare modalities that generally fall outside the realm of the conventional medical model (Smith et al., 1996). Herbal medicine is considered to be a primary complementary and alternative therapy. In recent years, the use...

Echinacea as an immunomodulator

When the clinical and in vivo studies of Echinacea are carefully examined, most conclude that the herb increases phagocytic activity. Even the polysaccharides only enhance macrophage activity and killing (Bauer and Wagner, 1991). Phagocytic cells are part of nonspecific immunity. What is often not appreciated is that the activities of phagocytic cells, especially macrophages, are a key element of immune surveillance. The macrophage secretes several immune-enhancing cytokines and pro cesses...

Joseph A Rininger Kerry Ringer and Mark Savarese

In Vitro Pharmacological Characterization of Echinacea Constituents Summary References The medicinal herb Echinacea is a popular herbal remedy, reputed to be an immunostimulant. Three primary species of Echinacea are commonly employed in commercial preparations Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea purpurea, and Echinacea pallida. While there is a growing body of scientific evidence that supports the marketed uses of Echinacea, a tremendous deficiency still exists in our understanding of its...

Sandra C Miller

Evidence of a Prophylactic Role for Echinacea Echinacea Can Rejuvenate NK Cells in Elderly Animals Arabinogalactan Augments NK Cells Echinacea Given to Leukemic Mice Enhances NK Cells and Increases Life Span Echinacea in Combination Therapy Enhances NK Cells and Increases Life Span of Although herbal medicine was practiced by U.S. physicians in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Echinacea was never approved by the American Medical Association because rigorous experimental evidence of its...

Toxicity

Possible implications of teratogenic or mutagenic effects are often suggested on the basis of in vitro and animal data. Although such data are certainly useful, they cannot be used to predict reproductive effects in humans because the teratogenic potential of a substance may vary considerably among species. To date, in vitro studies of bacterial and mammalian cells as well as in vivo studies of mice have found no evidence of mutagenicity associated with Echinacea Mengs et al., 1991 . There are...

Acknowledgment

This work was partially supported by Mead Johnson, Inc., Canada. Blumenthal, M., Goldberg, A. and Brinckman, J., Eds., 2000, Herbal Medicine Expanded Commission E Monographs, American Botanical Council, Integrative Medicine Communications, Boston. Boon, H., Brown, J.B., Gavin, A., Kennard, M.A. and Stewart, M., 1999, Breast cancer survivors' perception of complementary alternative medicine CAM making the decision to use or not to use, Qualitative Health Res., 9 639-653. Combest, W.L. and...

The potential of genomics

Consider the multiple chemical isomers of a given class of compounds, such as the extensively characterized alkamides Bauer and Foster, 1991 Bauer and Remiger, 1989 Bauer and Wagner, 1991 Bauer et al., 1988a, 1988b, 1989, 1990 Binns et al., 2002 Dietz and Bauer, 2001 . How many genes are involved in this phytochemical expression The effects of environment aside, is the array of different alkamides the phenotypic result of the action of many, possibly related genes encoding many enzymes Or does...