Acknowledgments

N.B.P. thanks his colleagues in Crop & Food Research for advice and access to results, especially E. Burgess and J. Douglas, and acknowledges support from the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology New Crops contract C02X0016. Bauer, R., 1998, Echinacea Biological effects and active principles, in Lawson, L.D. and Bauer, R., Eds., Phytomedicines of Europe Chemistry and Biological Activity, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp. 140-157. Bauer, R., 1999a,...

Heci Yu and Matti Kaarlas

Introduction Popularity of Echinacea Publications Cultivation Consumers Market Diversity of Echinacea Species Variety and Other Factors Methodology and Laboratories Regions Plant Parts Component Levels at Plant Development Stage Legislation, Pharmacopoeias, and Monographs Quality Standardization of Echinacea Active Markers Standardization Conclusion Acknowledgments References During the last decade, along with growing interest in CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) therapy and changes...

Table 161

The Effect of 7 Days of Simultaneous Administration of Dietary Melatonin3 + E. Purpureab on Hemopoietic Cell Lineages of Spleen and Bone Marrow a Melatonin given in the ground chow as 14.2 mg mouse day. b E. purpurea given in the ground chow as 0.45 mg mouse day. c Determined from differential counts of 2,000 total nucleated cells organ (enumerated by means of an electronic cell counter) and converted to absolute numbers of cells in each morphologically identifiable lineage. d Mean standard...

Info

FIGURE 11.1 Chemiluminescence test (third to sixth days after termination). FIGURE 11.2 Chemiluminescence test (twelfth to twenty-second day of testing). FIGURE 11.2 Chemiluminescence test (twelfth to twenty-second day of testing). the chemotactic migration of granulocytes (Wildfeuer and Mayerhofer, 1994). In the macrophages that were influenced by E. purpurea and E. pallida, an increased production of TNF-a and the induction of the interleukins IL-1 and IL-6 and interferon were described by...

Table

Web Pages about Echinacea Found via Major Search Engines, August 2001 and 2002 Search Increase ( ) Pages Year Google Alta Vista Lycos related to Echinacea found when using some search engines has reached 100,000 to 450,000 per year (Table 9.3). It can be seen that the popularity of Echinacea is dramatically increasing along with the rising popularity of CAM worldwide. The current areas of cultivation of Echinacea now extend beyond North America and Europe, into South America (Berti et al.,...

Echinacea as an immunomodulator

When the clinical and in vivo studies of Echinacea are carefully examined, most conclude that the herb increases phagocytic activity. Even the polysaccharides only enhance macrophage activity and killing (Bauer and Wagner, 1991). Phagocytic cells are part of nonspecific immunity. What is often not appreciated is that the activities of phagocytic cells, especially macrophages, are a key element of immune surveillance. The macrophage secretes several immune-enhancing cytokines and pro cesses...

Quality issues with echinacea products

The variability of the phytochemical content of Echinacea products was highlighted by a survey of Echinacea products on the German market, which found wide variations in levels of tested phytochemical components (Osowski et al., 2000). The authors chose to use chicoric acid and the two main alkamides in E. purpurea as quality markers, since these have been described as immu-nomodulating active components in this species. The same alkamides are also found in E. angus-tifolia. In regard to these...

Sandra C Miller

Evidence of a Prophylactic Role for Echinacea Echinacea Can Rejuvenate NK Cells in Elderly Animals Arabinogalactan Augments NK Cells Echinacea Given to Leukemic Mice Enhances NK Cells and Increases Life Span Echinacea in Combination Therapy Enhances NK Cells and Increases Life Span of Although herbal medicine was practiced by U.S. physicians in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Echinacea was never approved by the American Medical Association because rigorous experimental evidence of its...