Observations

The epigeal plant parts contain large amounts of substances (i.e. pigments, chlorophyll and resins) that are soluble in ethanol, which can interfere with this colorimetric method. Chromatographic methods can overcome this kind of interference.

SUGGESTED READINGS

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Blum, U., Wentworth, T.R., Klein, K., Worsham, A.D., King, L.D., Gerig, T.M. and Lyu, S.W. (1991). Phenolic acid content of soils from wheat-no till, wheat-conventional till and fallow-conventional till soybean cropping systems. Journal of Chemical Ecology 17: 1045-1068.

Bonjoch, N. and Tamayo, P. (2001). Protein content quantification by Bradford method. In: Handbook of Plant Ecophysiology Techniques (Ed., M.J. Reigosa). Kluwer Academic Publications, New York.

Brown, C.W. (1997). Ultraviolet, Visible, and Near-Infrared Spectrophotometers. In: Analytical Instrumentation Handbook (Ed., G.W. Ewing). Marcel Dekker, New York.

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Dai, J., Yaylayan, V.A., Raghavan, G.S.V. and Pare, J.R. (1999). Extraction and colorimetric determination of azadirachtin-related limonoids in neem seed kernel. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 3738-3742.

Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers P.A. and Smith, P. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28: 350-356.

Genkina, G.L. and Eidler, Y.I. (1975). Spectrophotometric method of analyzing cardenolides of the Sthophanthidin group with 2,2,4,4-tetranitrobiphenyl. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 10: 29-30.

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Hagerman, A.E. (2002). The Tannin Handbook. (http://www.users.muohio.edu/ hagermae/tannin.pdf).

Hatch, W., Tanner, C.E., Butler, N.M. and O'Brien, E.P. (1993). A micro-Folin-Denis method for the rapid quantification of phenolic compounds in marine plants and animals. International Society of Chemical Ecology. (Abstract). Tampa, Florida.

Makkar, H.P.S. (2000). Quantification of Tannins in Tree Foliage — A Laboratory Manual. FAO/IAEA Working Document, Vienna, Austria.

Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R. and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299: 152-178.

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