Secrets To Growing Great Citrus Trees

Insider Secrets To Growing Great Citrus Trees

Grow Citrus: The Insider Secrets to Growing Great Citrus. It is a book totally focussed on growing citrus lemons, oranges, mandarins, limes, grapefruit and more. Find out which citrus varieties are the best in your climate from warm, tropical climates to cooler climates. There are many cold-hardy varieties that may be grown in containers, conservatories and the open garden. An enormous 41 varieties of citrus are covered. Discover the 8 Key Steps to growing citrus successfully. Identify your trees problems with a comprehensive listing of pests and diseases a whopping 34 pages of information with high quality photographs and solutions to fix the problems. Discover the secrets of selecting and preparing the site to give your trees the best possible start in life. Discover a Radical Tree Root Preparation Method that has been used by the big commercial growers for some years and will make a huge difference to the survival of your young tree. Learn about which rootstocks are best as the correct choice of rootstock will often make the difference between success and failure. A comparison table of 9 different rootstocks and their description is vital information. If you have limited space or a cooler climate, Ill tell you everything you need to know about growing citrus in containers. Find out the essential tips of watering correct watering is vital to citrus success. These tips will have a huge impact on your trees and give you a fantastic harvest!

Insider Secrets To Growing Great Citrus Trees Summary


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Contents: 90 Pages Ebook
Author: Nola Griffin
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General Definitions and Apomixis Mechanisms

As apomictic reproduction entails the development of an embryo from a cell with a somatic chromosome number, several ways exist to produce embryos of apomictic origin. The simplest pathway avoids the production of a gametophyte, and a maternal embryo originates from one or more somatic cells of the ovule. This process is known as adventitious embryony, and can be either nucellar or integu-mental, depending on the tissue from which the embryogenetic somatic cell differentiates. Adventitious embryony seems to have evolved more frequently in tropical than in temperate flora. Moreover, it is more represented in diploid species, whereas other forms of apomixis are more frequent in polyploids. Among the agriculturally important species, adventitious embryony is found in several Citrus species, in mango (Mangifera indica) and in orchids. The most comprehensive treatise on adventitious embryony was published by Naumova (1992).

Viruses are present in most plant cells

With the exception of meristematic cells, almost all other plant cells are infected by viruses. In most cases, viruses do not kill their host since they depend on the host's metabolism for reproduction. The viruses encode only a few special proteins and use the energy metabolism and the biosynthetic capacity of the host cell to multiply. This often weakens the host plant and lowers the yield of virus-infected cultivars. Infection by some viruses can lead to the destruction of the entire crop. Courgettes and melons are extremely susceptible to the cucumber mosaic virus. In some provinces of Brazil, 75 of the orange trees were destroyed within 12 years by the Tristeza virus.

Preharvest application of proprietary elicitor delays fruit senescence

The proprietary elicitor, YEA , is an organic patented material derived from exoskeletons of crustaceans. YEA appears to be responsible for actually reducing ethylene biosynthesis. This was tested using triple response assays on etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, which is conducted using seeds germinated in the dark. Normally elongated hypocotyls (stems) are severely reduced in length by low concentrations of ethylene. When the seeds were germinated on agar medium containing 0.1 mg mL YEA , the results were the same as controls and indicated ethylene was not produced by the seedlings. Ethylene is a plant hormone that is associated with senescence. Sorenson compared YEA with a water control by spraying the leaves once and two applications to the soil around orange trees several weeks preceding harvest. Fruit from treated trees was picked later than from untreated control trees, as abscission was delayed. In addition, post-harvest gassing procedure with 10 ppm ethylene gas for 4...

Role Of Cactus Opuntia Ficus Indica In Waste Water Treatment Scuience Direct

Abid N, Lal R (2008) Tillage and drainage impact on soil quality I. Aggregate stability, carbon and nitrogen pools. Soil Till Res 100 89-98 Aganchich B, El Antari A, Wahbi S, Tahi H, Wakrim R, Serraj R (2008) Fruit and oil quality of mature olive trees under partial rootzone drying in field conditions. Grasas Aceites 59(3) 225-233 Aiyelaagbe I, Orodele O (2007) Leaf gas exchange and growth response of juvenile 'Valencia' orange trees to dry season irrigation in south western Nigeria. Proceedings conference on international agricultural research for development tropentag 2007. University of Kassel-Witzenhausen and University of Gottingen, Germany, October 9-11, 2007 Alar on JJ, Domingo R, Green SR, S nchez-Blanco MJ, Rodr iguez P, Torrecillas A (2000) Sap flow as an indicator of transpiration and the water status of young apricot trees. Plant Soil 227 77-85 Allouche N, Fki I, Sayadi S (2004) Toward a high yield recovery of antioxidants and purified hydroxytyrosol from olive mill...

Box 62 The Gotsch agroforestry system

The agroforestry approach developed by Ernst Gotsch in subtropical north-eastern Brazil has been adapted widely by several development projects in South America. The principle of the Gotsch approach is to make use of natural succession dynamics to achieve an abundant and diverse production while maintaining soil fertility without fertilizer and chemical use and without the need to fight disease or pests. Priority is given to a wide range of annual and perennial food crops and fruits adapted to the specific local ecological conditions. The tree component is less important. Typical crop species are rice, corn, beans, tomato, manioc, papaya, banana, cacao, coffee, citrus trees, palms and legumes as well as mahogany and other high-value timber species. All species are planted at high densities to respond effectively to all niches in the ecosystem. When the growth of one species declines another species take over. Weeding occurs selectively. Regular pruning adds more organic material to...

The carbon balance of mycorrhiza

An alternative approach was taken by Koch and Johnson (1984) and Douds et al. (1988) to eliminate the problems of differences in shoot phosphorus status or other physiological parameters in studies of mycor-rhizal effects on carbon allocation patterns in different citrus species. Carbon-14 was fed to shoots of plants with their roots split into a mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal half, and more carbon was allocated to mycorrhizal than to non-mycorrhizal root halves, both when expressed as total and specific (dpm g_1 rootwt) radioactivity. This directly showed that mycorrhizal development increases the sink strength of roots.

Byrsonima Rues And Lignum Vitae

Table 16-1 Florida's Citrus Species wo species are currently considered to be part of the state's naturalized flora and are the only species included in Part II. However, other species may sometimes be found scattered along highways, in old fields, or in other disturbed siies, Table 16-1 lists the common and scientific names for all of Florida's citrus species.

Nutrition And Fertilizing

Citrus trees need a certain amount of minerals related to their foliar surface and productivity. The soil must supply elements to the roots in an adequate quantity and quality. So a chemical analysis of the soil is the first thing to do before planting. Although soil analysis is the only procedure to find out the mineral composition of the root-explored layer, it has limitation, since the presence of nutrients may not correspond to their suitability for citrus trees. Some stable chemical compounds are not easily absorbed by roots. Sampling must be done in a uniform surface of soil. The sample must be taken at a depth of 10 60 cm (the main root-explored layer). Even in cases of apparent uniformity, several samples should be taken for separate analysis. Each single analysis is usually the result of mixing four soil samples taken at various points in each unit surface (one hectare or more). Analysis must be carried out for at least the main elements. The determination of the 'cation...

Ironfertilization increases fruit quality

Factors affecting fruit quality other than fruit size have been mainly studied in Citrus spp. The first trials with Fe-EDTA in Florida already indicated that Fe fertilization in Fe-deficient Citrus trees improved fruit quality, increasing soluble solids and volume of juice per fruit, slightly decreasing titratable acid in the juice and improving fruit color (Sites et al., 1953). Increases in yields of Fe-deficient Citrus aurantifolia after soil and foliar Fe fertilization were associated with increases not only in fruit weight (30 ) but also in juice contents (10 ), and also to decreases in total acidity (10 ), total soluble solids (25 ) and ascorbic acid concentrations (10 ), probably because of the dilution effect caused by a larger amount of juice per fruit (El-Kassas, 1984). Foliar Fe treatments repeated 10 times during the year (from August to February) increased the quality of March-harvested fruits in Citrus sp. through increases in fruit size and juice content and decreases in...

Biochemical And Other Tests

Brown and Hendricks (1952) suggested that the activity of copper enzymes could be used for diagnosing copper deficiency. Brown (1953) showed that irrespective of whether the plants developed visible symptoms of copper deficiency or not, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was related to the level of copper supply. Bar-Akiva et al. (1969) used ascorbic acid (ascorbate) oxidase to diagnose copper deficiency in citrus trees. They infiltrated 0.2 solution of CuS04 in the leaves of plants suspected of copper deficiency and followed the induction of ascorbic acid oxidase activity. The increase in the enzyme activity was inversely related to leaf copper content. Several other studies showed the dependence of ascorbate oxidase activity on copper status of plants (Hewitt and Tatham, 1960 Perumal and Beattie, 1966 Loneragan et al. 1982 Delhaize et al. 1982, 1985). Based on the observed correlation between ascorbic acid oxidase activity and tissue concentrations of copper, Delhaize et al, (1982)...


It is a fungal disease restrictedly spread in the Mediterranean Basin, around the Black Sea and in Asia Minor, whose causal agent is Phoma tracheiphila. It has been known since 1894, even though the causal agent has been defined afterwards. It attacks mainly lemon and citron trees, but it can infect all species of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella. Therefore not only scions but also rootstocks like sour orange, citrange, alemow are susceptible. It is the most serious disease affecting lemon trees in Italy (Salerno and Cutuli, 1992). Infections occur mainly during autumn-winter time with high relative humidity and with a suitable temperature for the growth of fungus at 20 C approximately. The development of infection is favoured by a vigorous growth of the tree. The infected trees are subject to a more rapid decline if the infection is in the roots and less rapid if apical. The pathogen penetration can proceed through stomata, but it is mostly through wounds deriving from winds, hail...

The Genus Citrus

Vegetative growth, and particularly leaf development and stem diameter, of orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is particularly susceptible to water scarcity (Dzikiti et al. 2006 Aiyelaagbe and Orodele 2007), and plants respond to drought by changes in gas exchange, phytohormonal balance and polyamine contents (Wang and Liu 2009). Moreover, internal water storage contributed significantly to the daily total leaf transpiration in the species (Dzikiti et al. 2006, 2008). Garc a Petillo et al. (2004) compared the effects of different irrigation volumes on Washington Navel orange yields during a 5-year period (0, 50 , 100 and 150 ETc). To apply these treatments, one irrigation drip line per tree row, with drippers, of 2, 4 and 6 L h 1 capacity, separated 1 m apart were used for the 50 , 100 and 150 ET treatments. Another treatment received the same amount of water as 100 ETc, but with two drip lines spaced 1 m apart per tree row and 2 L h-1 drippers and showed significant increases...


According to citrus species to be processed, the kind of products to obtain, and in accordance with local traditions, in order to separate the juice and the essential oil from the fruit, industry uses different systems and machines. In some of these, juice and essential oil are obtained in one operation, in others this happens in different stages.


Melissopalynology is the study of pollen in honey, with the purpose of identifying the source plants used by bees in the production of honey. This is important to honey producers because honey produced by pollen and nectar from certain plants as mesquite, buckwheat, or citrus trees demand a higher price on the market than that produced by other plant sources. Some plants

Phacelia coerulea b

Tesota is one of the desert's most beautiful trees, being particularly colorful when the new, dark-green leaves and violet, wisterialike flowers give it a lavender glow in late May or early June. Since the tree survives only In warm locations, it has for years served as a guide to citrus growers in selecting sites for orange, lemon, or grapefruit plantings.

Turpentine broom

Cartoon Hyphae

Sometimes people mistake this green and usually leafless shrub for mormon tea. A quick whiff of a crushed stem will alert them to the difference mormon tea has no particular odor turpentine broom smells sharply and strongly like turpentine. The smell originates in the small, round glands that dot the stems. Turpentine broom belongs to the same family as the various citrus trees, and you can see similar glands on the rinds and leaves of oranges and other citrus fruits.

Types of interaction

Ant nest-gardens, cultivated by carton-constructing arboreal ants, have already been described with respect to establishment, floristic composition, succession, plant nutrition, and reproduction. Warm, humid forests containing many small trees on fertile soil support highest neotropical nestgarden densities. Paleotropical counterparts exist in the sense that certain Australasian epiphytes regularly root in ant-constructed abodes (e.g., Dis-chidia nummularia planted by Iridomyrmex cordatus), but the resulting dwellings are generally less conspicuous than those in tropical America. Thirty-four well-developed nests, each nourishing a sizable garden, were recorded on a single 10 X 10 m plot in an Amazonian Caatinga (Madison 1979a). Citrus tree crowns in a northern Trinidad grove each contained 3-10 discrete ant nest-gardens (pers. obser.). Ant nest-garden aggregations, or what were probably the products of fragmented, polygynous colonies of Camponotus femoratus, occurred on 16-39 of the...


The root system of citrus trees is usually formed by a rootstock that frequently correspond to a different species than the variety. The main rootstocks used in Citriculture are the following Out of the three citrus tree genera Poncirus, Fortunella and Citrus, only Poncirus is deciduous while the two other are evergreen. Several leaf flushes occur around the year, depending on the climate. Leaves usually stay on the trees for a period between 9 24 months or even more. Citrus leaves (Figure 2.2) have two different parts, the leaf blade and the petiole. The union between both parts is articulated. Abscission of the leaf usually occurs at the base of the petiole, although in some cases this can occur at the articulation of the blade. The upper part of the leaf is darker than the lower one. A midrib is clearly visible and prominent at least in the lower part of the blade. The length broad ratio is high in mandarins an lower in sweet oranges and lemons. Throughout the leaf blade, oil...


This is a monotypic genus because has only one species, that is P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. It is also called trifoliate or trifoliate orange. The tree is thorny, deciduous and has a marked cold resistance. It is mainly used as rootstocks for cultivated citrus as well as a parent in citrus breeding programmes. A botanical variety (var. monstrosa) is a very dwarf type of trifoliate, having curved thorns. Leaves are always with three folioles. The fruits are not edible because of the presence of a sour compound ponciridin. By far the main genus within the Aurantioideae is Citrus, wherein practically all citrus trees grown throughout the world are included. The frequency of spontaneous mutations as well as the high occurrence of natural hybrids together to the high number of artificially obtained interspecific hybrids has originated the existence of a very large number of varieties, with more or less commercial interest, receiving local names and complicating the taxonomic identification of...


Citrus tree manipulation is a significant cultural practice in some regions, while it is of little importance in others. It is possible to draw a geographic world map, depicting the use of pruning as a method of training trees to grow in a desirable scaffold structure and constantly produce fruit of excellent quality. Generally speaking, pruning is neglected or limited in tropical regions as well as in countries that produce fruit for processing. Scarcity of qualified labour and or its high cost is another limiting factor in some citrus growing areas, like the United States. In Mediterranean countries hand-pruning is still an important way of regulating tree growth and bearing. Citrus tree growth is upright in most varieties. A fruitful branch tends to bend and produce new sprouts. Some of these sprouts are too vigorous and discourage the growth of other lateral stems. During the first years, there is no need to cut all, or part of these vigorous sprouts, since research has shown that...

Choice Of Soil

The worst soils for citriculture are the richest in clay and lime (fine particles), which are an obstacle to water percolation. Some of these soils can be bettered to a certain extent by creating an appropriate drainage system. The so-called 'mid-compacted soils', where sand and clay-lime particles are more or less equal in quantity, are the best for citrus trees. They have sufficient colloids to avoid rapid drought, easily retain nutrient elements and allow bacterial life. The microbiological life of a soil is very important for mineral transformation. In some cases mineralized elements are inert and not easily captured by the roots. The pH (soil reaction) and water table are other factors to be taken into account. Citrus trees can be grown in soil with a wide pH range (5.5 8.0) using appropriate rootstocks. The depth of the water table must be checked, especially where there is seasonal fluctuation. Roots must never be submerged by water.


Citrus trees are evergreen plants which originated in humid climates. This is why their root system is superficial. They need a periodic water supply to support the leaf, stem and fruit transpiration. Watering is usually adequate in rainy regions. In temperate and dry zones there is lack of water, at least in some periods of the year. In such areas irrigation is necessary to make the citrus industry profitable. Deficient water in soil deletes both tree growth and yield. In some cases (sub-arid climates) irrigation is indispensable to grow citrus for commercial purpose. The amount of water necessary is variable. It not only depends on climate conditions but also on the soil texture and watering system. There are various ways of checking the amount of water in the soil. Tensiometers measure the soil moisture content. They must be used at two depths (20 25 50-60 cm). Irrigation is applied when the soil storage capacity is reduced and tensiometers show about 50 centibars. It is not...

Deciduous Trees

Idso and Kimball (1991a) grew sour orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.) in four open-top chambers supplied with ambient CO2 or a CO2-enriched atmosphere consisting of an extra 300 imol mol of air. After 2.5 years of growth under the two CO2 treatments, soil cores were taken at different depths (20 cm increments) and at different distances from each tree. Fine roots were the most predominant type encountered. Large roots were so few that they could not obtain biomass data for them. The elevated CO2 did not affect root growth from the 40-120 cm depth (Figure 15.32, top). However, the 0-40 cm depth did show an increase in growth due to elevated CO2 (Figure 15.32, bottom). This depth contains most of the roots (70 of the roots of the ambient trees and 78 of the roots of the CO2-enriched trees). They calculated that the fine-root biomass was enhanced by 175 in the CO2-enriched trees, which was similar to the growth enhancement from elevated CO2 for the total aboveground trunk plus branch...