Methods of irrigation

The land should be laid out either in ridges and furrows or in flat beds for irrigation. Ridges and furrows are better than flat beds or check basins for the economisation of water (Subramanian et al., 1998). Additionally, chillies cannot withstand water stagnation. Seedlings should be transplanted halfway on the ridge for better growth and higher yields. The distance between two ridges depends upon the row spacing of the crop. Hegde (1989a) observed that alternate furrows and a widely spaced furrow irrigation system holds great promise for reducing the irrigation need, as such a set-up has the inbuilt advantage of holding a smaller quantity of irrigation water compared to that of every furrow irrigation.

Matev et al. (1970) compared the different types of irrigation using the cv. Kurtovska Kupija-1619- The lowest yield was obtained with pipe irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation was most suitable for light sandy clay soil, while irrigation by furrows and pipes was most suitable for heavy meadow soils. The efficiencies of rain hose sprinkler and furrow irrigation systems were investigated by Eom and Im (1990) in a sandy loam soil. Cumulative infiltration by furrow irrigation was 25% of the soil infiltrability when the soil water potential was —0.5 bar. The loss of irrigation water by runoff was 27—31% and 58—61% for sprinkler and rain hose, respectively. The application efficiency and storage efficiency of sprinkler irrigation was 61-73% and 52—89%, and that of rain hose irrigation 73—76% and 55%, respectively. The advantage with sprinkler and drip irrigation systems is that pesticides could be mixed with irrigation water to control diseases (Nashev, 1998) and insects (Cabello et al., 1997). In an evaluation of low head drip irrigation, pitcher irrigation and subsurface irrigation using clay pipes, it was observed that in addition to being cheap, simple and easy to use, subsurface irrigation was effective in improving yield, crop quality and water use efficiency (Batchelor et al., 1997).

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