Chillies are shallow rooted crops and are very sensitive to soil moisture variations. Field moisture must be carefully monitored throughout the crop growth. Excess soil moisture particularly following the fruit set must be avoided. When there is a soil moisture deficit, blossom end rot may occur and under greater moisture stress, fruit abortion is possible.

Hot chillies, which are usually grown for red dry chillies, are raised as a rainfed crop in several parts of the world that receive an annual rainfall of around 80—100 cm. Chilli seedlings are usually transplanted with the onset of monsoon in the tropics when the relative humidity is around 90%. This transplantation facilitates quick establishment of the seedlings. The chilli crop is also raised during winter and summer seasons, and also in places where rainfall is not sufficient for the growth of the crop, and so a supplemental irrigation is required. Non-pungent types of chillies are raised under irrigated conditions.

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