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Figure 4-6 Typical selected reaction monitoring profile from the analysis of capsaicinoids by LC—MS—MS (Reilly et al., 2001b). The identities of the peaks are octanoyl vanillamide (m/z 280-137), non-ivamide (m/z 294-137), capsaicin (m/z 306-137), and dihydrocapsaicin (m/z 308-137).

Capsaicinoids and toxicity

Many studies have been conducted on the most abundant capsaicinoids in the Capsicum pepper, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. Capsaicin, the pungent phenolic compound of the Capsicum species, has shown a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antigenotoxic, antimu-tagenic and anticarcinogenic effects. Other studies, however, have shown it to be a tumour promoter and potential mutagen and carcinogen, resulting in capsaicin being termed as "a double edged sword" (Richeux et al., 1999; Singh et al., 2001).

Neurotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of capsaicinoids

The detection of painful stimuli occurs primarily at the peripheral terminals of specialized sensory neurons called nociceptors. The small diameter neurons transduce signals of a chemical, mechanical or thermal nature into action potentials and transmit their information to the central nervous system, ultimately eliciting a perception of pain and discomfort (Caterina and Julius, 2001). The localized desensitization of nociceptive afferents when capsaicin is applied in small doses has led to capsaicin being used as a therapeutic drug for pain relief (Minani et al., 2001). For example, capsaicin has been evaluated as an analgesic in a variety of neuropathic pain conditions, including postherapeutic neuralgia, painful diabetic neuropathy, osteroarthritis, the postsurgical pain syndrome and Guillain-Barre syndrome (Markovits and Gilhar, 1997; Szallasi and Blumberg, 1999). However, at increased concentrations, a capsaicin-associated burning sensation can negate the beneficial and therapeutic effects (Minani et al., 2001).

In order to determine the lethal toxic level of capsaicinoids and to extrapolate them to humans, many experiments were performed in mice, rats, guinea pig and rabbits. Pure capsaicin (16,000,000 SHU) was administered intravenously, subcutaneously in the stomach and applied topically until the death of the animals. The lethal toxic doses of capsaicin in mg per kg animal weight, were 0.56 for intravenous administration, 190 when consumed and 512 when applied topically. The probable cause of death in all cases was presumed to be respiratory paralysis. Guinea pig was the most sensitive to capsaicin, while rabbits were less sensitive. The acute toxicity of capsaicinoids as a food additive for humans was negligible. Moreover, if humans were as sensitive as mice, the acute fatal toxicity dose for a 70 kg person would be about 13 g of pure capsaicin which is very high regarding the Capsicum content and the quantity taken per one meal. Other studies have concluded that a person of 70 kg weight would have to consume nearly 2.5 L of Tabasco sauce to overdose and to become unconscious. People with few tastebuds in the mouth are not so bothered by the extreme heat. However, most of the people react very negatively to the super hot sauces, experiencing severe burning and sometimes blistering of the mouth and the tongue and immediate responses have included shortness of breath, fainting, nausea and spontaneous vomiting (Geppeti et al., 1988; Palecek et al., 1989; Midgren et al., 1992).

Many other studies on capsaicinoid toxicity have shown that capsaicin directly inhibits protein synthesis by competition with tyrosine in a cell-free system, as well as in a cell culture system according to the cell type and the extracellular concentration (Cochereau et al., 1996). Reports in the literature (Nagabhushan and Bhide, 1985; Lawso and Gannett, 1989; Morre et al., 1995) indicate that capsaicin and its metabolites are able to induce DNA damage and mutagenicity observed in bacteria and in vivo micronucleus formation in mice. In the presence of Cu (II) and molecular oxygen, capsaicin was reported to cause strand scission in DNA through an oxidative mechanism (Morre et al., 1995; Cochereau et al., 1996; Cochereau et al., 1997). For example, in Hela cells in culture, 100 jxM capsaicin was reported to induce DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation (Morre et al., 1995).

Usage of capsaicinoids in self-defence weapons

An interesting application of capsaicinoids is their use in self-defence weapons. Defense sprays have become popular for both police use and personal protection. Most of them contain o-chlorobenzylidene, malononitrile, chloroacetophenone, oleoresin Capsicum or a combination of these ingredients. When applied topically, capsaicin produces a spontaneous inflammatory reaction in mucous membranes, and contact with eyes results in blepharospasm caused by irritation of the corneal nerves. Additional symptoms of eye contact include extreme burning heat, lacrimation, conjunctival edema and hyperemia (Gonzalez et al., 1993). In the nasal mucosa, capsaicin produces burning pain, sneezing and a dose-dependent serious discharge (Lundblad et al., 1984; Geppeti et al., 1988). Contact with skin produces a burning sensation, erythema without vesiculation, while its inhalation results in transitory bronchoconstriction, cough and retrosternal discomfort (Collier and Fuller, 1984; Fuller et al., 1985; Blanc et al., 1991; Midgren et al., 1992). Direct administration of extratracheal capsaicin aerosol in dogs resulted in apnea, brachycardia, hypotension, miosis and aqueous flare (Gonzalez et al., 1993).

Conclusion

Capsaicinoids are a natural group of alkaloids attracting an increasing interest for their use as food additives and for their pharmacological properties. Human intoxication risk with capsaicinoids after ingestion was evaluated to be very low, while its use in self-defence weapons with possible contact with eyes could result in acute blepharospam. Their isolation from the Capsicum species and their complete quantification still requires relatively sophisticated apparatus. However, permanent research for low cost determination continues.

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