Chicken Coop Plans

How to Build a Backyard Chicken Coop

Making your own chicken coop will probably be the best decision that you have ever made for your home. Why, do you ask? Building your own chicken coop does three things for you. First, it saves you a lot of money. Having someone else build a coop for you can set you back a lot of cash that you shouldn't have to spend. Second, you can build it how YOU want it done. A coop that comes with your house will likely not meet the specific needs of your flock. Third, you will look on what you have built with pride, knowing that you have built something lasting and high quality. This ebook teaches you how to build your own chicken coop from scratch without having to have any previous construction experience or much money at all. Make the coop that your flock deserves! More here...

How to Build a Backyard Chicken Coop Summary

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Contents: Ebook
Author: Bill Keene
Official Website: www.buildingachickencoop.com
Price: $29.95

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15 Chicken Coop Plans By Easy Coops

Now you can choose the healthy self-sufficient life style and build your own chicken coop in your backyard without any experience or elaborated woodwork tools. You will learn how to build a durable great looking coop that will withstand weather changes. This book will help you supply your family with daily healthy delicious eggs. Some of my doubts before buying the book was the lack of experience I had and I felt great that all plans didn't require any woodwork background because they are all explained in details and illustrations and the best advantages for me is that every plan has very accurate measurements which helped a lot. This 600 pages book has 15 different coop plans to choose from. Each plan have a security measures to keep hens save and have a space for adults to walk. By reading each plan you will learn the best durable material which is very cost effective and you will learn how to make all the ventilations and insulations work. The book was created by a collection of big names and certified professionals in the field of agriculture and sustainable farming. I find it is the best book in this field so far. More here...

15 Chicken Coop Plans By Easy Coops Summary

Contents: Ebook, Plans
Official Website: easycoops.com
Price: $29.99

Identifying the Organisms Involved

Westphal (2005) has recently reviewed techniques for determining whether a soil contains organisms suppressive to nematodes. However, once a soil has been deemed suppressive to nematodes, identifying the causal organisms can be difficult, with the possible exception of P. penetrans. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne spp. with attached endospores of P. penetrans are readily extracted from soil and there is a good correlation between endospores per J2 and suppression of egg production by the bacterium (Minton and Sayre 1989 Chen et al. 1997 Meyer 2003). Because endospores of P. penetrans are very resistant to environmental extremes, drying and heating of soil can be used to selectively eliminate invertebrate predators and fungal parasites of nematodes, respectively, while auto-claving soil eliminates all organisms including spore-forming bacteria. Weibelzahl-Fulton et al. (1996) used such a technique to demonstrate that P. penetrans was responsible for suppression of...

Integration of Biological Control with Other Management Tactics

Nematophagous fungi and P. penetrans are generally compatible with non-fumigant nematicides and some fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene. Nematicides do not usually have an adverse effect on these organisms (Mankau and Prasad 1972 Jacobs et al. 2003) and may even enhance parasitism. Brown and Nordmeyer (1985) suggested that aldicarb and carbofuran increased movement of M. javanica J2 and acquisition of endospores leading to a synergistic reduction in galling when the nematicides were combined with P. penetrans. However, the frequency of endospores attached to J2 in a field study was not influenced by the application of aldicarb (Timper et al. 2001). Applications of oxamyl and P penetrans to tomato had an additive effect on reducing egg production by Meloidogyne spp., but acted synergistically in the subsequent cucumber crop (Tzortzakakis and Gowen 1994). Fungal parasites of sedentary stages cannot protect plant seedlings from nematode invasion and early-season damage, but will often...

Increased demand for livestock feed protein from soybean

The increased sourcing of livestock feed protein from soybean has been associated with an increased commercialization of pork and poultry production that demands a higher minimum quality of feedstuffs in terms of energy and protein content (USDA, 2005). As the livestock industry grows to meet the increasing demand for livestock products, the use of soybean meal in feed (especially for pig, chicken and rabbit production) is also becoming more important in response to changes in dietary habits and shifts in tastes and consumer preferences (Nakamura, 1961 USDA, 2005). Protein for animal feed manufacturing is increasingly sourced from soybean meal instead of fish meal, as has been the case in the past (Nakamura, 1961 Mwasha, 2006 Zulu, 2006). The problems with sourcing livestock feed proteins from fishmeal include high levels of bacterial (e.g. Salmonella) contamination, which causes serious production problems in poultry (diseases can lead to 100 mortality in poultry farms, about 50...

Trichoderma Biocontrol Activity Against Root Knot Nematodes

Trichoderma asperellum-203 and T. atroviride IMI 206040 (both fungi were previously defined as strains of T. harzianum) exhibited biocontrol activity against M. javanica in soil (Sharon et al. 2001). Several other Trichoderma species and isolates (3 isolates of T. asperellum 44, GH11 and 34 T. harzianum 248 T. hamatum 382) have been also evaluated as biocontrol agents against M. javanica and M. incognita. Those Trichoderma isolates had shown biocontrol activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Significant biocontrol activities against the RKNs were obtained with several vegetable crops, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, egg plants and lettuce, as well as with ornamentals. Experiments were conducted with pots, up to 50 L containers, in growth-chambers and in microplots. Peat-wheat bran Trichoderma preparations were applied to different soils (or potting mixes) 1-2 weeks before planting and or to the potting mix of the growing seedlings. Trichoderma-treated plants exhibited reduced galling...

Endophytic Behaviour and Biological Control

Nematode-trapping fungi have been shown to colonise the rhizosphere of different plant species, with a special occurrence in plants from family Leguminosae (Peterson and Katznelson 1964 Gaspard and Mankau 1986 Persmark and Jansson 1997 Persson and Jansson 1999). Riekert and Tiedt (1994) found M. incognita larvae captured in D. dactyloides trapping devices formed in the surface of infested maize roots. Nevertheless, fungal traps were never observed inside the roots, and these appeared mostly in the vicinity of secondary root bases. Rhizosphere of several plant species is also colonised by the nematode egg-parasite P. chlamydosporia, being its rhizospheric population increased by egg production of M. incognita females infecting the roots (Bourne et al. 1996). The endophytic behaviour of nematophagous fungi has been little studied. Both nematode-trapping (A. oligospora) and egg-parasitic (P. chlamydosporia) fungi can behave as root endophytes under axenic conditions (Bordallo et al....

AMF and Root Knot Nematodes

Most of the research conducted in the past on AMF x plant-parasitic nematode interactions focused on root-knot nematodes. For example, biological control of root-knot nematodes by AMF has been demonstrated on many crops (Table. 10.1). In mycorrhizal plants egg production of M. hapla was reduced up to 75 and disease severity up to 71 (Waceke et al. 2001). Other effects of AMF towards root-knot nematode infestation include reduced juvenile penetration (Sikora 1979), reduced number and size of root-knot galls (Bagyaraj et al. 1979 Kellam and Schenck 1980), reduced nematode reproduction (Sikora 1979) and improved plant growth (Feldmann et al. 2008) (Fig. 10.1).

Suppressing Nematodes with Organic Amendments

Commercial use of such amendments is limited by cost and by concerns about the environmental impact of large quantities of nitrogen. Most recent studies have therefore sought to achieve efficacy at lower application rates. One successful approach involved adding a nitrification inhibitor (nitrpyrin) with the amendment to slow the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, therefore allowing ammonia concentrations to build up for an extended period. When the inhibitor was applied with chitin or cottonseed amendments, ammonia levels were higher for longer periods than in amended soils without the inhibitor, and this was associated with reduced egg production and galling from Meloidogyne javanica (Oka and Pivonia 2002). Alkaline additives have also improved the effectiveness of nitrogenous amendments by increasing soil pH and therefore shifting the equilibrium between the NH4+ and NH3 to the latter form, which is nematicidal (Oka et al. 2006a).

Factors Involved in Development of Suppressive Soils

In addition to P. penetrans, a diverse group of bacteria have been applied for control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Some of these bacteria are referred to as rhizobacteria because of their close association with plant roots. In a glasshouse experiment, two strains of Burkoldera cepacia suppressed the numbers of M. incognita eggs on bell pepper by 60-69 (Meyer et al. 2001). However, in two separate field experiments, a commercial preparation of B. cepacia failed to reduce populations of H. glycines on soybean (Noel 1990). Although B. cepacia is considered a rhizosphere colonizer, a foliar application of a commercial formulation reduced the number of Aphelenchoides fragariae on hosta foliage under glasshouse conditions (Jagdale and Grewal 2002). In a microplot study, the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and P. aeruginosa strain IE-6S+, and the root-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum suppressed the number of galls on tomato caused by M. javanica by 28-43...

Induced Resistance

The existence of DIR has been well documented in mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii against the geometrid Epirrita autumnata (Haukioja et al. 1988), although the magnitude of the resistance effect and the plant traits involved are still not fully understood (Kaitaniemi et al. 1998). Another documented case of DIR is the European larch and the larch bud moth Zeiraphera diniana (Baltensweiler and Fischlin 1988 ). There are a number of systems, however, where extensive damage in one year has not resulted in any increased resistance to insects in the following year (Niemela et al. 1991 Smits and Larsson 1999). It seems as if coniferous trees are less prone to induction by folivorous insects than deciduous trees, possibly because of differences in carbon allocation strategies (Tuomi et al. 1988). It should be pointed out, however, that all these examples have evaluated effects by bioassaying insect larvae. It is possible that other insect life stages can...

Cutworms

Paropsisterna tigrina has emerged as the most significant pest of plantation tea tree. The beetles over-winter in sheltered crevices within poorly managed plantations or in the surrounding wooded areas. Adults begin feeding and egg production in spring on expanding flush growth. Soil temperatures above 15 C (Curtis 1993) and adequate soil moisture triggers plant growth. The larvae are initially gregarious. On consumption of the young flush growth near the oviposition site the larvae spread out over the plant. Both larval and adult stages feed on young foliage produced in spring and autumn. The number of P. tigrina generations within a plantation depends on temperature and soil moisture levels. The maximum daily rate of egg production is 13 eggs female day, at 29 C and 85 humidity. Exposure of eggs for 2-6 hours at 38-40 C reduces hatching to less than 15 while exposure of 1st and 2nd instar larva to 35 C for 4-6 hours killed more than 75 . Exposure of small larvae at 40 C for 4 hours...

Hensens footprints

'I may well be allowed to add the following statement here. I would be pleased if I could let myself be convinced by the above reports that diatoms represent a significant food source of higher organisms. I am prevented from doing so by the fact that I have so far found the amount, the larvae and the egg production, e.g. of the copepods, to be more often in inverse rather than in direct relation to the frequently observed mass development of diatoms.'

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