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80-100%

1. Plain in Northwestern Hungary, 2. Danubian basin, 3. Territory east of the River Tisza, 4. District of Rivers Kros-Tisza, 5. District of Rivers Kros-Maros, 6. Nyirseg, 7. Bodrog River district, 8. Plain of Bereg, 9. Hungarian Central Chain, 10. Transdanubia chemical diversity of the species was proved even by the first data. To fulfill the requirement for collecting equalized and standardized drug, more detailed analysis were needed on the chemical diversity of indigenous populations. In the period 1959-1961 500 wild chamomile plants were sampled by Mathe [21]. However, the accumulation of essential oil and its chamazulene content were affected by conditions of the year, and also regional differences were established. The frequency of populations of low pro-chamazulene content is very high in the regions, located to the east from the River Tisza (region 3 in Table 5.5.1). In this region about one third of populations accumulate chamazulene in a range as low as 0-29 mg%, and the presence of the pro-chamazulene-free individuals is very common, too. In contrast, in the region of the Bodrog River (northeast Hungary) and Transdanubia, 25-27% of populations accumulate 100 mg% or higher amount of pro-chamazulene.

According to recent investigations [36] at 12 collection areas of Hungary, populations accumulating typically chamazulene (10-20%), a-bisabolol (30-50%) or bisabolol-oxid (30-50%) could be completely distinguished (Table 5.5.2). Samples collected in Danube-Tisza Mid Region could be characterized by highest accumulation of chamazulene (up to 20% of oil). According to Mathe [21] the compositional characteristics of the populations may be affected by the climatic conditions and the soil properties, too.

In the same experiment, the flavonoid concentrations had also been checked. The quantity of apigenin-7-glucoside proved to be outstanding in the populations originating from the Great Hungarian Plain (1.8-2.8 mg/g), while samples collected in Transdanubia could be characterized by lower levels (2 mg/g).

The chemical diversity of the chamomile populations was justified in the Bulgarian flora as well. It was proved by the investigations of Peneva et al. [23], analyzing populations for presence of essential oil, chamazulene content, and flavonoids during the period 1982-1983. Some of their data are presented in Table 5.5.3.

In the experimental field, chamazulene was found even in the populations that had been characterized as chamazulene-free local races. In fact, the flavonoid content did not change in the course of the introduction. However, by the opinion of the authors the local populations of chamomile show low productivity of essential oil, which makes them unsuitable as a starting material for enlarging production. By the more detailed investigations of Stanev et al. [30], four different chemotypes of chamomile were identified in Bulgaria. Analyzing the samples collected from 29 regions of Bulgaria, two main groupswere separated: populations accumulating chama-

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