* Decrease in production in 1986 was due to climatic influences.

* Decrease in production in 1986 was due to climatic influences.

FIGURE 5.11.1 Chamomile harvest in Thuringia.

In Germany as well, cultivation was extended after 1975. Today exclusively cultivated varieties are grown. The biggest part of these are tetraploid varieties with high (-)a-bisabolol content.

Meanwhile, the main culture of the medicinal plants and spices cultivated in Germany is True chamomile. The annual cultivation area amounts to more than 800 ha, more than 700 ha thereof are to be found in Thuringia. Other German cultivation areas are Saxony (about 40 ha organically grown chamomile) and Hesse (approximately 100 ha). The total area of organically grown chamomile has increased continuously during recent years and comprises about 100 ha at present. A comprehensive investigation as well as an evaluation of procedures and equipment of the production of chamomile in Saxony and Thuringia is discussed by Herold et al. [4] and Seitz [7].

The cultivation of chamomile in Germany is still increasing slightly and is limited in principle by the availability of harvesting equipment (in 2003 and 2004, over 800 ha alone in Thuringia).

There are two reasons for the increasing cultivation of chamomile in Germany:

• Cultivation of high-quality, protected chamomile varieties with a special profile of ingredients for the production of pharmaceutical products

• The increasing requirement of product safety concerning undesired residues of pesticides and heavy metals

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