Selection of Land Cultivation Methods Postharvest Processing Cultivars References
5.6 Cultivation Experiences in Slovakia Viliam Oravec, Viliam Oravec, Jr., Miroslav Repcâk, L'ubomir Sebo, Dusan Jedinak, and Ivan Varga
5.6.2 Research, Breeding, Seed Growing, and Varieties 188.8.131.52 Research
184.108.40.206 Breeding and Seed Growing
5.6.3 Principles of Quality: Drug Description
5.6.4 Mechanization: Picking Technique and Picking Machines
220.127.116.11 Technique of Picking
18.104.22.168 Picking Machines 22.214.171.124.1 Technical Data
5.6.5 Plant Raw Material and Processing in Slovakia
126.96.36.199 Picking Conditions and Picking Methods
188.8.131.52 Postharvest Processing
5.6.6 Processing in Slovakia
184.108.40.206 Essential Oils
5.7 Growing Varieties of Chamomile in the Czech Republic Josef Holubâr References
5.8 Experiences with the Cultivation of Chamomile in Argentina Norberto Fogola
220.127.116.11 Date of Sowing
18.104.22.168 Seed Amount
22.214.171.124 Row Distance
126.96.36.199 Germination Factors
188.8.131.52 Growth Factors
184.108.40.206 Soil Properties
5.8.2 Weed and Pathogen Control
5.8.3 Yield Formation
220.127.116.11 Stage of Development and Content of Nutrients
18.104.22.168 Distribution of the Active Substances
5.8.4 Harvest and Processing
22.214.171.124 Time of Harvest
126.96.36.199 Harvest Methods
188.8.131.52 Seed Harvest
5.9 Chamomile in Chile: Cultivation and Industrialization Eduardo Weldt S
5.9.1 Botanical Considerations
184.108.40.206 Weed Control
5.9.4 Final Products References
5.10 Cultivation Experiences in Egypt Tamer Fahmi
5.10.1 Cultivation Regions
5.10.2 Cultivation Areas
5.10.3 Cultivation Procedure
5.10.4 Insects that Infect the Plant and the Methods of Fighting Them
5.10.5 Cultivated Varieties/Types
5.10.6 Harvesting, Drying, and Preparation
220.127.116.11 Harvest Date
18.104.22.168 Treatment after Harvest
22.214.171.124 Packaging, Storage, and Shipping
126.96.36.199 Production Quantity, Export Quantity, and Usage 5.11 Cultivation in Germany Rolf Franke and Hans-Jürgen Hannig
5.11.3 Seed Production References
5.1 ecological requirements
The actual origin of Matricaria recutita L. is the Near East and south and east Europe. The species is to be found almost all over Europe, in western Siberia, Asia Minor, the Caucasus Mountains, Iran, Afghanistan, and India. After its introduction it also became common in North America, South America, New Zealand, and Australia . It even appears in the coat of arms of Pehuajo (a provincial town in the Pampas about 500 km southwest of Buenos Aires), although chamomile is not found in a botanical statement containing the medicinal plants of Argentina found.
Good proof of the existence of chemodems has meanwhile been given. With regard to the sesquiterpene alcohols, original forms mostly show bisabololoxides. A form rich in (-)a-bisabolol could be found in Spain. Nowadays the origin of chamomile flowers from wild collections can easily be determined by means of the chemical composition [26, 77, 80, Table 5.1.1]. Types rich in bisabolol are to be found endemically in Catalonia/Spain :
• Bisabolol oxide A types originate from Egypt and central Europe (e.g., Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakian Republic).
• Bisabolol oxide B types are from South American collections.
• Bisabolone oxide A types originate from southeast Europe and Turkey.
• Types poor in or free of matricine are to be found in Egypt, the Balkans (Romania and parts of Bulgaria), and Turkey; the types growing there are mostly those with yellowish-green oil .
• The composition of essential oil is obviously to a higher degree genetically determined than oil content. The oil content is more strongly influenced by environmental factors and shows considerable variation, even within a relatively small area (see Reference 89).
As a very high percentage of the material comes from cultivation, the required types are cultivated in various regions of the world, depending on what is needed.
As far as the location is concerned, True chamomile is extremely tolerant and modest. It grows equally well in light and heavy soils of different scopes of reaction (from sour to neutral-alkaline). Wild locations are often sandy to loamy, mostly sour fields and fresh ruderal places. Salty soils
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