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Selection of Land Cultivation Methods Postharvest Processing Cultivars References

5.6 Cultivation Experiences in Slovakia Viliam Oravec, Viliam Oravec, Jr., Miroslav Repcâk, L'ubomir Sebo, Dusan Jedinak, and Ivan Varga

5.6.1 Introduction

5.6.2 Research, Breeding, Seed Growing, and Varieties 5.6.2.1 Research

5.6.2.2 Breeding and Seed Growing

5.6.2.3 Varieties

5.6.3 Principles of Quality: Drug Description

5.6.4 Mechanization: Picking Technique and Picking Machines

5.6.4.1 Technique of Picking

5.6.4.2 Picking Machines 5.6.4.2.1 Technical Data

5.6.5 Plant Raw Material and Processing in Slovakia

5.6.5.1 Picking Conditions and Picking Methods

5.6.5.2 Postharvest Processing

5.6.6 Processing in Slovakia

5.6.6.1 Essential Oils

5.6.6.2 Extracts

References

5.7 Growing Varieties of Chamomile in the Czech Republic Josef Holubâr References

5.8 Experiences with the Cultivation of Chamomile in Argentina Norberto Fogola

5.8.1 Cultivation

5.8.1.1 Date of Sowing

5.8.1.2 Seed Amount

5.8.1.3 Row Distance

5.8.1.4 Germination Factors

5.8.1.5 Growth Factors

5.8.1.6 Soil Properties

5.8.1.7 Climate

5.8.1.8 Fertilizing

5.8.2 Weed and Pathogen Control

5.8.2.1 Herbicides

5.8.2.2 Insecticides

5.8.3 Yield Formation

5.8.3.1 Stage of Development and Content of Nutrients

5.8.3.2 Distribution of the Active Substances

5.8.4 Harvest and Processing

5.8.4.1 Time of Harvest

5.8.4.3 Harvest Methods

5.8.4.4 Seed Harvest

References

5.9 Chamomile in Chile: Cultivation and Industrialization Eduardo Weldt S

5.9.1 Botanical Considerations

5.9.3 Cultivation

5.9.3.1 Sowing

5.9.3.2 Weed Control

5.9.3.3 Harvest

5.9.4 Final Products References

5.10 Cultivation Experiences in Egypt Tamer Fahmi

5.10.1 Cultivation Regions

5.10.2 Cultivation Areas

5.10.3 Cultivation Procedure

5.10.4 Insects that Infect the Plant and the Methods of Fighting Them

5.10.5 Cultivated Varieties/Types

5.10.6 Harvesting, Drying, and Preparation

5.10.6.1 Harvest Date

5.10.6.2 Harvest

5.10.6.3 Treatment after Harvest

5.10.6.4 Packaging, Storage, and Shipping

5.10.6.5 Production Quantity, Export Quantity, and Usage 5.11 Cultivation in Germany Rolf Franke and Hans-Jürgen Hannig

5.11.1 Introduction

5.11.2 Cultivation

5.11.3 Seed Production References

5.1 ecological requirements

5.1.1 Origin and Areas

The actual origin of Matricaria recutita L. is the Near East and south and east Europe. The species is to be found almost all over Europe, in western Siberia, Asia Minor, the Caucasus Mountains, Iran, Afghanistan, and India. After its introduction it also became common in North America, South America, New Zealand, and Australia [83]. It even appears in the coat of arms of Pehuajo (a provincial town in the Pampas about 500 km southwest of Buenos Aires), although chamomile is not found in a botanical statement containing the medicinal plants of Argentina found.

Good proof of the existence of chemodems has meanwhile been given. With regard to the sesquiterpene alcohols, original forms mostly show bisabololoxides. A form rich in (-)a-bisabolol could be found in Spain. Nowadays the origin of chamomile flowers from wild collections can easily be determined by means of the chemical composition [26, 77, 80, Table 5.1.1]. Types rich in bisabolol are to be found endemically in Catalonia/Spain [14]:

• Bisabolol oxide A types originate from Egypt and central Europe (e.g., Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakian Republic).

• Bisabolol oxide B types are from South American collections.

• Bisabolone oxide A types originate from southeast Europe and Turkey.

• Types poor in or free of matricine are to be found in Egypt, the Balkans (Romania and parts of Bulgaria), and Turkey; the types growing there are mostly those with yellowish-green oil [77].

• The composition of essential oil is obviously to a higher degree genetically determined than oil content. The oil content is more strongly influenced by environmental factors and shows considerable variation, even within a relatively small area (see Reference 89).

As a very high percentage of the material comes from cultivation, the required types are cultivated in various regions of the world, depending on what is needed.

5.1.2 Soil

As far as the location is concerned, True chamomile is extremely tolerant and modest. It grows equally well in light and heavy soils of different scopes of reaction (from sour to neutral-alkaline). Wild locations are often sandy to loamy, mostly sour fields and fresh ruderal places. Salty soils

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