Galenic preparations of german chamomile

The following preparations are produced from the entire plant:

1. From fresh aerial (aboveground) parts of Matricaria recutita L. a fresh press juice is obtained, that is mainly sold in health food stores.

2. Dried, herbal parts, the so-called chamomile herb, are finely cut and packed in filter tea bags and sold as foodstuff. Usually the herb is cut after harvesting the flower heads two or three times. The proportion of flower heads in the mixture normally is 5 to 20%.

3. From dried or (more rarely) fresh chamomile flower heads a blue volatile oil is obtained by various steam distillation techniques. "Chamomile (essential) oil" is used for cham-

1 Kamillen-Bad-Robugen, Producer: Robugen GmbH, Esslingen/N, Germany; new trade name is Kamillin® -bath.

omile ointments, creams, and spray preparations. Additionally, it is technically used for the standardization of ethanolic aqueous extracts (chamomile tincture).

4. Dried and pure chamomile flower heads (purified of stems) are used for infusions and herbal teas. Pharmacopoeia-grade chamomile flower heads have to be proved for a minimum content of volatile oil according to the pharmacopoeial monograph.

5. Sterile aqueous extracts of pharmacopoeial-quality flower heads are used for eyedrops, mostly in single-dose quantities.

6. Fluid extracts and tinctures with varying ethanol-water mixtures are prepared from dried or deep frozen flower heads, fluid extracts usually being in the ratio ethanol/water 1:1, tinctures in the ratio 1:5 or 1:10. Extracts of high quality should be standardized on constituents which contribute to efficacy.

Examples for a well-standardized extract read as follows:

"100 g of an ethanolic-aqueous extract contain 150-300 mg of blue essential chamomile oil with 50 mg (-)-a-bisabolol and 3 mg chamazulene together with 150-300 mg apigenin-7-glucoside" or "100 g of an ethanolic-aqueous extract contain 170 mg of blue essential chamomile oil with 50 mg (-)-a-bisabolol, along with 10-40 mg free apigenin," and as a third example: "100 g of an ethanolic-aqueous extract contains 200 mg of blue essential chamomile oil, and additionally 150 mg apigenin-7-gluco-side."

7. For the preparation of chamomile gels, ointments, and creams the ethanol-aqueous extracts are concentrated to viscous extracts (Latin: extractum spissum) and incorporated into the respective dermatologic vehicles.

8. Through further and total evaporation of the liquid of a chamomile extract a dry extract is obtained that is used for the preparation of tablets, capsules, and coated pills.

9. Chamomile tablets are usually prepared of dried and purified powder of chamomile flower heads.

10. For the preparation of chamomile bath oils chamomile flower heads of pharmacopoeial quality are extracted with natural plant oils or neutral oils (e.g., Miglyol).

11. For anthroposophic chamomile preparations the roots of German chamomile are extracted with ethanolic aqueous solvents.

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