Essential Oils

Chamomile is most frequently used for production of essential oil, which takes place during its distillation with water steam. At the same time sterilization and assurance of microbiological safety takes place, with subsequent extraction of the obtained extract. The generally known method used for isolation of essential oil is distillation with water steam. This method is demanding for technological equipment. The quantity of essential oil obtained depends on a large number of factors, such as pH, drug homogeneity, and quality [16]. The technological equipment, which is used in Slovakia, is protected by the author's certificate of invention No. 245316 (Figure 5.6.13).

The distillation kettle of the apparatus for production of essential oils from medical plants consists of a closed conical vessel (1), with the discharging mechanism on its lower base (2). The steam supply is connected above them (3). The filling neck (4) and the outlet (5) are located on the upper base. The homogenizing rotor (6) driven by the driving mechanism (7) is inside of the closed vessel.

FIGURE 5.6.13 Distillation kettle of the apparatus for production of etheric oils from medical plants. 1. vessel of the kettle, 2. discharging mechanism, 3. steam supply, 4. filling neck, 5. discharging neck, 6. homogenizing rotor, 7. helix, 8. joint bearings, 10. eccentric, 11. drive, 15. transmission, 17. quick-closing device, 18. glass piping of the cooler, 19. thermal insulation; 12, 13, 14, 16: discharging mechanism.

FIGURE 5.6.13 Distillation kettle of the apparatus for production of etheric oils from medical plants. 1. vessel of the kettle, 2. discharging mechanism, 3. steam supply, 4. filling neck, 5. discharging neck, 6. homogenizing rotor, 7. helix, 8. joint bearings, 10. eccentric, 11. drive, 15. transmission, 17. quick-closing device, 18. glass piping of the cooler, 19. thermal insulation; 12, 13, 14, 16: discharging mechanism.

The distillation kettle has the homogenizing rotor (6) consisting of the eccentric (10), transmission (15), and helix (7) located parallel with the wall of the closed vessel (1) in such a vat that its driven end is seated in the bearing (9) of the eccentric (10) and its free end is seated in the joint bearing (8), which is situated in the axis of the closed vessel (1).

The distillation kettle has the discharging mechanism (2) consisting of one fixed plate (12) and one rotary plate (13), which have at least two overlapping cutouts (14).

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