Escop matricariae flos matricaria flower

2.5.1 escop* Monograph Matricariae flos — Matricaria Flower ([12]; See also Chapters 11 and 12)

Matricariae flos Matricaria Flower Definition

Matricaria flower consists of the dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert). It contains not less than 4 ml/kg of blue essential oil.

* European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy.

The material complies with the European Pharmacopoeia [12].

Fresh material may also be used provided that when dried it complies with the European Pharmacopoeia. Constituents

The main characteristic constituents of matricaria flower are the essential oil and flavone derivatives [21, 32, 60, 98, 116] such as apigenin-7-glucoside (approximately 0.5%) [32].

The essential oil contains approximately 50% of the sesquiterpenes (-)-a-bisabolol and its oxides A and B [98], bisabolonoxide, up to 25% of cis- and trans-en-yn-dicycloethers (or spiroethers) [32], and matricin, which is converted to chamazulene on distillation (up to 15%) [32].

Other constituents of matricaria flower include coumarins (herniarin and umbelliferone) [21, 32, 98, 116], phenolic acids [21, 32, 98], and polysaccharides (up to 10%) [21, 32, 52, 98]. Clinical Particulars Therapeutic indications Internal use

Symptomatic treatment of gastrointestinal complaints such as minor spasms, epigastric distension, flatulence, and belching [24, 27, 32, 45, 60, 65, 83, 93, 112] External use

Minor inflammation and irritations of skin and mucosa, including the oral cavity and the gums (mouthwashes), the respiratory tract (inhalations), and the anal and genital areas (baths, ointments) [24, 27, 28, 35, 50, 54, 69, 74, 78, 83, 85, 86, 94, 96, 99, 105, 111, 112] Posology and method of administration Internal use

Adults: As a tea infusion: 3 g of the drug to 150 ml of hot water, three to four times daily Fluid extract (ethanol 45-60%): Single dose 1-4 ml [4, 32] Dry extract: 50-300 mg three times daily [64] Elderly: Dose as for adults

Children: Proportion of adult dose according to age or body weight External use

For compresses, rinses, or gargles: 3-10% m/V infusion or l% V/V fluid extract or 5% V/V tincture [32, 64]

For baths: 5 g of the drug, or 0.8 g of alcoholic extract, per liter of water [32]

For solid and semisolid preparations: Hydroalcoholic extracts corresponding to 3-10% m/m of the drug [60, 116]

For vapor inhalation: 10-20 ml of alcoholic extract per liter of hot water [96] Method of administration

For oral administration, local application, and inhalation Duration of administration No restriction Contraindications Sensitivity to Matricaria or other Compositae Special warnings and special precautions for use None required Interaction with other medicaments and other forms of interaction None reported Pregnancy and lactation No harmful effects reported Effects on ability to drive and use machines None known Undesirable effects

Rare cases of contact allergy have been reported in persons with known allergy to Artemisia species [98]. Matricaria flower of the bisabolol oxide B-type can contain traces of the contact allergen anthecotulide [27, 62, 98]. Matricaria recutita L. possesses a much lower allergenic potential than other chamomile species, and therefore allergic reactions to Matricaria must be considered as extremely rare. Most of the described allergic reactions to Matricaria were due to contamination with Anthemis cotula or related Anthemis species, which contain high amounts of anthecotulide. However, in cases where Matricaria contact allergy has been acquired, cross-reactions to other sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants are common [62]. Overdose No toxic effects reported

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