Planting

At the end of September start of October the soils are prepared and the young plants are planted into the soil. The soil is divided into rows (distance between is 0.75 m) and fertilized with superphosphate. The soil is watered immediately before planting. Manual watering is done as furrow irrigation. Per feddan approximately 20,000-25,000 seedlings are planted (45,000-55,000 ha). This constitutes into a seeding amount of 200-250 g feddan (ca. 500-600 g ha). The plant nursery should not be...

Harvest of Wild Populations

The cultivation of chamomile is practiced all over the world however, the collection of the wild population did not lose its importance, especially in the east and south European countries. In Hungary about 95 percent of 500 to 700 t of Chamomillae flos produced yearly comes from the wild population. For collection the regions are chosen where the chamomile plant forms a compact stand on relatively large fields. These territories in Hungary are as follows territories east to the River Tisza,...

Introduction

Chamomile has long been one of the most important medicinal plants cultivated in Slovakia. Its cultivation started in the beginning of the 1950s in the former Czechoslovak Republic. Diploid variety Bohemia with a high content of chamazulene and a-bisaboloxide A and B was sown. In 1957 the tetraploid variety Pohoelicky Velkokvety with similar characteristics, as far as efficacious compounds are concerned, was bred, but this variety was restricted because of the high degree of disintegration....

Essential Oils

Chamomile is most frequently used for production of essential oil, which takes place during its distillation with water steam. At the same time sterilization and assurance of microbiological safety takes place, with subsequent extraction of the obtained extract. The generally known method used for isolation of essential oil is distillation with water steam. This method is demanding for technological equipment. The quantity of essential oil obtained depends on a large number of factors, such as...

Nutrient Supply

Chamomile grows in the sodic soils or in poor ruderal habitats under natural conditions. According to the former studies 11 chamomile takes 53 kg of N, 85 kg K2O, and 21 kg P2O5 from the soil for production of 1.0 t of inflorescence. According to Hungarian cultivation experiences, the chamomile gives good yield on the medium quality soils without any fertilization, because of the limited nutrient requirement of species. In Slovenia chamomile production is located to the hop production areas,...

Chemical analysis of the chamomile mucilage

The extraction of chamomile flowers with 96 ethanol precipitates large amounts of (natural) mucilage. The mucilage has to be demineralized in order to determine its viscosity and identify individual polysaccharide components. This can be done using amberlite IR-120, an acidic cation exchanger, and amberlite IR-45, a basic anion exchanger. Comparative hydrolytic tests 120 showed that hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic (TFE) acid (1 ml of 1 solution of chamomile mucilage + 1 ml 4N TFE, boiled for 30...

Heinz Schilcher Peter Imming and Susanne Goeters

4.1.1 The Essential Oil and Its Constituents 4.1.1.5 Spiroether (Syn. Enyne Dicycloether) 4.1.1.6 Quantitative Composition of the Essential Oil 4.1.2.1 Comparative Quantitative Tests of the Flavonoids 4.1.3 Chamomile Polysaccharides, Mucilaginous Substances 4.2.1 Other Lipophilic Constituents 4.2.2 Other Hydrophilic Constituents 4.2.2.1 Phenyl Carboxylic Acids (Phenyl Substituted Carboxylic Acids) Chamomile contains a large number of therapeutically interesting and active compound classes. The...

Info

A Data are referred to the 25 inhibition of growth. b Concentrations of the pure compounds ( g ml) inhibiting the growth of the bacteria data from the literature (Szabo-Szalontai, 1976), incubation time 24 hours. c Concentration of the components in the HEC dose having the same antibacterial activity our data, incubation time 8 hours. HEC alcoholic chamomile extract. a Data are referred to the 25 inhibition of growth. b Concentrations of the pure compounds ( g ml) inhibiting the growth of the...

Flavonoids

While the spasmolytic effect of the chamomile flavonoids had been known for many years 42, 55 , the antiphlogistic activity was proved much later 9, 20, 23, 25, 26, 126 . Della Loggia tested the flavonoids in the inflammation model induced by croton oil. He examined apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, and also rutin and myricetin. Antiphlogistic activity decreased in the following order Apigenin > luteolin > quercetin > myricetin > apigenin-7-glucoside > rutin. Apigenin even exceeded the...

Chamazulene Matricin Chamazulene Carboxylic Acid and Guaiazulene

Even though its constitution was not known at the time, chamazulene was identified as the antiphlogistic principle of chamomile oil in a test system of chemosis caused by mustard oil in rabbit eye as early as 1933 47 , and again in 1942 in cavy eye 92 . Because these test systems were questioned later 17, 89 , the activity of the blue azulene was confirmed in other test models. There was a positive effect on UV erythema of the cavy 50 and on heat-damaged mouse tail 22 . In the rat paw test...

Who Flos Chamomillae

2.7.1 who Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants 13 Flos Chamomillae consists of the dried flowering heads of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert (Asteraceae) 2, 3, 8, 9 . Matricaria chamomilla L., M. recutita L., M. suaveolens L. 3, 98 In most formularies and reference books, Matricaria chamomilla L. is regarded as the correct species name. However, according to the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert is the legitimate name for this species 90 ....

Changes in the essential ingredients during storage

Since demand for the whole year must be covered, the long-term storage of the dried drugs is also essential. In the case of the storage-sensitive chamomile flowers, the main problem is a loss of essential oils in the dry drug, which also contain a considerable proportion of the active ingredients. The main reason for the losses is the low steam pressure of the oil-water vapor mixture that forms, which encourages the evaporation of essential ingredients. The most important factors influencing...

Escop matricariae flos matricaria flower

2.5.1 escop* Monograph Matricariae flos Matricaria Flower ( 12 See also Chapters 11 and 12) Matricaria flower consists of the dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert). It contains not less than 4 ml kg of blue essential oil. * European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. The material complies with the European Pharmacopoeia 12 . Fresh material may also be used provided that when dried it complies with the European Pharmacopoeia. The main characteristic...

Description of the plant 341 Botany

True chamomile is an annual plant, grows 10 to 80 cm high, prefers sandy to loamy, mostly sour fields and fresh ruderal places. Salty soils like in the Puszta or in Argentina are duly tolerated. The plant has thin spindle-shaped roots that only penetrate flatly into the soil. The stem is in an upright position, mostly heavily ramified, bare, round, and filled with marrow. The leaves are alternate, double to triple pinnatipartite, with narrow-linear prickly pointed sections being hardly 0.5 mm...

Quantitative Determination of the Essential Oil in Chamomile Flowers by Means of Steam Distillation continued

Pharmacopoeia of the Federal Republic of Germany, 9th edition, 1987 DAB 9, FRG, 1987 Pharmacopoea Helvetica, 7th edition, 1987 Pharmacopoea Austria, 1990 German Pharmac. DAB 10 Ph. Eur., 1996, 3rd 1997 2002 Ph. Eur., 2002 Draft monograph 300 ml of water in Xylene a flask of 1000 ml 0.5 ml 300 ml of water in Xylene a 1-L flask 0.5 ml 300 ml a 1-L 300 ml a 1-L 300 ml a 1-L 300 ml a 1-L 300 ml a 1-L Xylene 0.5 ml Xylene 0.5 ml Xylene 0.5 ml Xylene 0.5 ml Xylene 0.5 ml 3-4 ml min 4 h gt 10 min...

References

Achterrath-Tuckermann, U., Kunde, R., Flaskamp, E., Isaac, O., Thiemer, K. 1980 Planta Med. 39, 38-50. 2. Aggag, M. E., Yousef, R.T. 1972 Planta Med. 22, 140. 3. Ammon, H. P. T., Sabieraj, J., Kaul, R. 1996 Dtsch. Apoth. Ztg. 136, 1821. 4. Appelt, G. D. 1985 J. Ethnopharmacol. 13, 51-55. 5. Baker, P. M., Fortes, C. C., Fortes, E. G., Gazzinelli, G., Gilbert, B., Lopes, J. N. C., Pellegrino, J., Tomassini, T. C. B., Vichnewski, W. 1972 J. Pharm. Pharmac. 24, 853. 6. Barton, H. 1959 Acta Biol....

Thin Layer Chromatography

The development of TLC methods has been successful for the separation of about 30 flavonoids, among them the five main aglyca, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, patuletin, and isorhamnetin, 20 flavonoid glycosides and so-called lipophilic methoxylated flavones 71 . This was followed by the densitometric determination of some main constituents such as apigenin-7-glucoside, quercetin-7-glucoside, quercetin-3-galactoside, and patuletin-7-glucoside. Silica gel 60 F254 was used in combination with...

Advantages and Disadvantages of Dryers

8.2.5.1.1 Static Dryer Figures 8.2.6, 8.2.7 Advantages flexible operation corresponds to the structure of a working day in small, medium, and large farms or agricultural enterprises simple operation low investment costs suitable for low, medium, and large throughputs mainly suitable for uncut plants in large layers. Disadvantages higher specific energy consumption, danger of uneven drying across the height of layer, higher labor demand for filling and discharging of dryer or high investment...

Latin botanical names synonyms

In the various florae and books for the identification of plants the names used differ considerably. The synonyms already mentioned by Tabernaemontanus 1664 19 are most interesting where they are specified in many different languages. This currently shows an amazing constancy as far as the use of the popular names in central Europe, but also in the Mediterranean area, in the Balkans, and in Arabia. Considerable revisions of the Latin nomenclature have been made in recent years. Nevertheless, it...

Harvest Methods

The collection or the harvest of the flowers is carried out as follows 1. Manually the flower head is torn off by shifting the stalk between the fingers and pressing the fingers briefly, as is still the case in Egypt today. 2. With a rake similar to the one that is used for blueberry and cranberry harvests. The following systems exist FIGURE 5.8.1 Manually pushed picking cart. FIGURE 5.8.1 Manually pushed picking cart. a. Meyer Tubes with a multipronged fork with a mobile cutting device...

Packaging

Dried chamomile flowers and herbs are very sensitive storage goods and so proper packaging during storage is absolutely essential, more so than for any other drug. The packaging must meet the following requirements It must provide the necessary protection against the dried products getting moist again. It must provide sufficient protection against infestation with harmful insects of any type. It must minimize evaporation of the value-giving essential oils. It must prevent any mechanical stress...