The species, subspecies, and the whole genetic composition of the plant will clearly affect how the plant will respond to the various ecological conditions. Furthermore, the developmental stage of the plant will influence the plant's response to the environment. Relatively few studies on various species show somewhat conflicting results. Light and temperature are intimately related in nature, and neither of them can be isolated from the other climatic factors. The studies have shown that the fruit and essential oil yield of caraway largely depends on the availability of the carbohydrate assimilates in early stages of seed production. The plant requires a high light intensity and a high rate of photosynthesis in order to produce good quality and great quantity of essential oil. Also a short photoperiod will contribute to greater size and number of fruits in caraway. The effect of light quality and the mechanism by which the light affects the production of caraway still remain to be discovered. The effect of photoperiod in nature is closely linked to the temperature. The optimum temperature for the species controls the level of oil production. The biennial caraway favors moderate temperatures while the annual caraway prefers higher temperatures for good growth. In general, the maximum amount of metabolites are synthesized under conditions that are most favorable for overall plant growth.

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