Irrigation

In semiarid regions where the annual caraway grows, there are two critical stages during its growth, where irrigation is necessary: from germination to establishment and at seed formation (Hornok 1986, Penka 1978, Weglarz 1983). The first stage appears at autumn and the other at spring/early summer (Putievsky 1976). At those periods the amount and date of rainfall change from year to year, and in most of the places, where the annual caraway grows, it is impossible to irrigate artificially. Furthermore, as this plant is considered a winter crop, grown commercially on a large scale, the farmer cannot search for fields close to a source of water that can be used for artificial irrigation (Putievsky et al. 1984, Putievsky and Kuris 1977, Putievsky and Sanderovich 1985).

In Egypt, when rainfall is not sufficient, the farmer makes use of the flooding system to irrigate his crop, while in Israel in commercial fields most of the farmers have the possibility, in extreme conditions, to use sprinkler irrigation.

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