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aData from Bouwmeester et al. (1995a).

bEssential oil contents were determined using solvent extraction and gas chromatography and are expressed as a percentage of seed dry weight or as the absolute amount of oil in one seed (calculated from essential oil percentage and seed dry weight). cData are means of four replicates.

dP-values indicate the significance level for a linear relation with the percentage light reduction.

aData from Bouwmeester et al. (1995a).

bEssential oil contents were determined using solvent extraction and gas chromatography and are expressed as a percentage of seed dry weight or as the absolute amount of oil in one seed (calculated from essential oil percentage and seed dry weight). cData are means of four replicates.

dP-values indicate the significance level for a linear relation with the percentage light reduction.

authors have indeed started to use this ratio rather than the carvone percentage (Bouwmeester et al. 1995a, Galambosi and Peura 1996). Carvone content can—like for total essential oil—also be expressed as a percentage of total seed mass. Finally, carvone percentages or carvone/limonene ratios of essential oil samples obtained using (steam) distillation should be treated with care. Koedam (1982a) reported that extraction of limonene from dill seed is less efficient than of carvone due to the higher polarity of the latter. This may result in essential oils enriched in carvone when distillation is not completed (Bouwmeester et al. 1995a,b). Nevertheless, as much literature data as possible are used to illustrate this chapter.

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Figure 2 Developmental changes in seed contents of limonene, carvone and total essential oil (limonene+carvone) for biennial caraway. (A) Relative content of limonene (o) and carvone (A) in first (open symbols) and second order umbels (closed symbols). (B) Relative essential oil content of first (open symbols) and second order umbels (closed symbols). (C) Absolute amount of essential oil per seed, symbols as for B. From Bouwmeester et al. (1995)

It can therefore not be excluded that these data also refer to essential oil and carvone percentages, some of solvent extracted, others of distilled caraway seeds. This has to be kept in mind wherever literature data are interpreted.

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