Genetic Determination Of Induction Requirement

Although factors, which may induce flowering in caraway, are complex ones, genetical determination should be the basis of all the reactions. Differences in the vegetation length and induction requirement of biennial and annual types of caraway have their genetical background, which eventually should be the real difference between the ecotypes. The genetical code regulates the physiological processes, through which the flower development takes place. According to Kuckuck et al. (1988) cross...

References

Aylott, R.I. (1995) Flavoured spirits. In Lea, A.G.H. and Pigott, J.R. (eds.) Fermented beverage production, Blackie academic & professional Glasgow. Bazata, V., Plocek, J. and Suk, V. (1984) Contribution to the hydrodestillation of some essential oils of Apiaceae. Intern. Vortragstagung Methoden und Verfahren der Z chtung, des Anbaus, der Sammlung und der industriellen Verarbeitung von Arznei und Gew rzpflanzen. VEB Pharmazeutisches Werk Halle. Catizone, P., Marotti, M., Toderi, G. and T t...

Maintenance And Care Of Plantation

Appropriate timing and adequate quality of agricultural practices are particularly important for caraway, considering its as a biennial crop and also, as mentioned before, cultivation often combined with other crops. Such measures include loosening (aeration) of soil, weed control, thinning of cover plants and disposal of their post-harvest residues and, if necessary, thinning of caraway and ridging. Seedlings emerge usually after 2 weeks and, like in other umbelliferous plants, their initial...

Ch2oh

Techniques by Hopf and Kandler (1976). The biosynthesis of umbelliferose in vivo proceeds by the transfer of a galactosyl residue from an activated precursor to saccharose. During the synthesis of reserve cellulose in the endosperm large amounts of trehalose are also formed. While trehalose disappears almost completely during ripening, umbelliferose is accumulated continuously. Monosaccharide composition of polysaccharide preparation from caraway is described by Hopf and Kandler (1977). The...

Caraway In Folk Medicine Of Various Countries

The range of Carum carvi is immense (from Northern Europe to the Mediterranean regions, Russia, Iran, Indonesia and North America). In numerous countries it is a very common species and, as a result, an integral part of their folk medicines. For example in Poland caraway is recommended as a remedy to cure indigestion, flatulence, lack of appetite, and as a galactagogue (Tyszynska-Kownacka and Starek 1988). In Russia it is also used to treat pneumonia (Czikow and Laptiew 1982). In Great Britain...

Interference of Scarvone with the Potato Wound Healing Process

The curing or wound healing period immediately after harvest of potatoes is the period in which the wounds, that occur during harvest, are healed. This is an essential phase of potato storage since wounds are ideal entries for pathogens and because water can easily evaporate from the wounded tubers. S-carvone inhibits the process of wound healing temporarily (Figure 7a and b) by reduction of the suberization and the cambium layer formation. Suberization as a process is not impossible in the...

Preface To The Series

There is increasing interest in industry, academia and the health sciences in medicinal and aromatic plants. In passing from plant production to the eventual product used by the public, many sciences are involved. This series brings together information which is currently scattered through an ever increasing number of journals. Each volume gives an in-depth look at one plant genus, about which an area specialist has assembled information ranging from the production of the plant to market trends...

Toxicity of Caraway towards Bacteria Fungi Mites and Insects and its Advantages for People

Antibacterial and antifungal properties of caraway essential oil are used in therapy, but also in some other fields and may be of great importance for people. Farag et al. (1989b) reported the inhibitory effect of six spice essential oils (including caraway) on 3 strains of Gram-negative bacteria and 4 Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the anti-microbial compounds in tested spices. This may be crucial for food preservation. Microbial spoilage of food is...

Toxicology Of Caraway 1141 Toxicity of Caraway towards

The common opinion about the absolute safety of herbal drugs is undoubtedly wrong. It is obvious that biologically active compounds causing a therapeutic effect may be dangerous in certain situations and doses. As far as caraway is concerned, most authors agree that it shows no toxic effect towards people, and is well tolerated in medicinal doses and as a spice. However Lewis (1977) discussing the problem of allergy, mentioned carvone as sensitising substance, and classified Carum carvi among...

Indications

Carum carvi is recommended as a remedy curing digestive tract disorders like flatulence, eructation, stomach aches, constipation, lack of appetite, nausea. It is a mild drug, considered safe even for infants and the elderly. In small children caraway is used to treat flatulence and stomach aches, in the elderly for bile flow disorders, intestinal atony, vegetative neurosis (Ozarowski and Jaroniewski 1987). Caraway fruit is recommended for breast-feeding women to enhance lactation and for the...

Antibacterial Effects

Since long time human beings used herbs and spices for preventing food deterioration and pathogenic diseases. In general, plants from the Liliaceae family followed by Myrtaceae, Cruciferae and Labiatae showed the highest antimicrobial activity. While usually the antimicrobial effect of caraway is expected to be low, Morris et al. (1979) reports that together with essential oils of other botanicals the oil of caraway showed considerable effect. Salzer (1982) examined six different spice extracts...

Characters Of The Carum Genus

Abaxial Side More Stomata Density

General Description Tutin et al. 1978 Leaves 2-4 pinnate, sepals very small or absent. Petals whitish, rarely pink or yellowish, obovate, emarginate. Apex inflexed. Fruit obovoid-oblong, laterally compressed. Ridges filiform, prominent or almost winged. Vittae solitary. Carum genus is involved in the Apioideae subfamily, Apieae tribe and in Seselinae subtribe Pimenov and Leonov 1993 . 2.3.2. Species Tutin et al. 1978, Hegi 1975 It is written in the work of Engler 1964 that the Carum...

Herb Perseca Seed

Abou-Zied, E.N. 1974 Increase in volatile oil and chemical composition in the seeds of caraway and fennel plants induced by succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide. Biol. Plant., 16, 123-126. A.O.A.C. 1975 Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis, 12th ed., The Association, Washington, D.C. Atal, C.K. and Sood, N.M. 1967 Study of Indian caraway and its substituents. The Indian J. of Pharmacy, 29, 42-44. Baba, K., Yoneda, Y., Kozawa, M., Fujita, E., Wang, N. and...

Carum Carvi Weed Control

Abou Zied, E.N. 1974 Increase in volatile oil and chemical composition in the seeds of caraway and fennel plants induced by succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide. Biol. Plant., 16, 123-126. Ahmed, S.S. and Eid, M.N.A. 1975 Effect of gibberellic acid and Cycocel on yield of seeds and essential oil of some umbelliferous plants. Egypt. J. Hortic., 2 2 , 227-232. Anonymous 1988 Stichting voorPlantenveredeling-SVP. Caraway. Jaarverslag 1987, 68, 120 in Dutch . Anonymous 1992 The 68th list of approved...

Carum Carvi Reference

Allard, R.W. 1960 Random mating in small populations. In Principles of Plant Breeding, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp. 200-203. Anonymous 1991 De Gelderlander of 13.7.1991. Bouwmeester, H.J. 1995 Seed yield in caraway Carum carvi L. 1. Role of pollination. J. Agric. Science, 124, 235-244. Broekema, C. 1924 Aanbevelenswaardige gekweekte rassen van landbouwgewassen Recommended bred varieties of field crops . De Veldbode. 13.9.1924, 359-360. Dijkstra, H. 1993 Personal communication. Dijkstra, H....

Effect of Light Quality

The light quality can modify the plant growth and development in numerous ways. The photochemical reactions in plants require energy from different parts of the light spectrum. Plants detect the light with chemical photoreceptors. Photomorphogenic pigments include phytochrome and blue light absorbing photoreceptors. The primary receptor that detects the quality of light is phytochrome which exists in two forms Pr absorption maximum at 660nm and Pfr absorption maximum at 730nm . Phytochrome...

Breeding for Higher Carvone Production and Diversifying the Caraway Crop

As from 1984, caraway genetic improvement received a new impetus in the context of multidisciplinary research projects to create new, industrial, crops Toxopeus and Bouwmeester 1993 amongst which caraway. The idea was to develop and market a potato sprout retarding agent on the basis of S- -carvone, as found in caraway essential oil. The main objective of breeding research was to attempt to increase carvone content of the seed whilst at least keeping up the existing seed yield level, and in...