Actinomorphic. Radially symmetrical.

Active trap. A carnivorous plant trap in which a movement of plant parts takes place during the trapping process.

Ala. Literally, "wing"; a broad, bladelike expansion of the axial margin of a pitcher leaf.

Amphiploidy. A process by which a new species develops from a hybrid plant. The chromosome number of the hybrid doubles and the plant is capable of maintaining its characteristics during sexual reproduction with like plants.

Anther. The tip portion of a stamen, which produces pollen.

Anthesis. The period in which a flower expands and/ or pollination can take place

Asexual reproduction. A form of reproduction involving only one parent plant and thus no exchange of genetic material; e.g., budding, cuttings, bulb divisions, etc.

Backcrossing. A reproductive cross between a hybrid and one of its parent plants.

Beard. A confluence of plant hairs on the palate of a flower.

Binomial nomenclature. The modern system of biological classification whereby each living organism bears a two-word name corresponding to its genus and species.

Bog. A freshwater, constantly moist or wet area dominated by mosses and herbaceous plants.

Bract. A small modified leaf structure, which, in flowers, is located below the calyx.

Bracteole. A small bract.

Calyx. A collective term for all the sepals of a flower.

Chasmogamous. A term applied to flowers that open or expand fully during anthesis.

Cleistogamous. A term applied to flowers that open only partially during anthesis.

Clone. In botany, a group of plants that all bear the same genetic composition, having been borne of one plant by repeated asexual reproduction.

Closing trap. A carnivorous plant trap in which two identical trap halves approximate and thus incarcerate the plant's prey.

Column. In the context of pitcher plant leaves, the structure supporting a lid or hood.

Corolla. A collective term for all the petals of a flower.

Cross-pollination. The exchange of pollen in sexual reproduction between two different flowering plants.

Cuneate. Wedge-shaped (a term applied to leaves).

Cuticle. A water-impermeable, waxy coating of some plant surfaces.

Door. In Utricularia, the veil of tissue that closes a trap opening.

Ensiform. Sword-shaped (a term applied to leaves).

Enzyme. A chemical substance that speeds a chemical reaction without itself changing or becoming a component of the reaction.

Family. A closely related group of genera. A family may have only one genus, but classification is at the same level as other families with two or more genera.

Fenestrations. Depigmented, windowlike areas of plant tissue, also known as areolae.

Filiform. Threadlike (a term applied to leaves).

Fimbriate. Feathery, or very finely divided.

Flypaper trap. A carnivorous plant trap in which the victim is ensnared by sticky, mucilagenous secretions.

Fusiform. Thickened in the middle but tapering smoothly toward each end.

Gemmae. Buds formed by vegetative reproduction in a small cuplike structure from which they are shed.

Genus. The first word or more inclusive portion of a binomial name (pi. genera).

Grass-sedge bog. A sandy bog dominated by grasses and sedges with scattered longleaf pines.

Hibernaculum. A winter bud from which plants will arise with the return of proper growing conditions (pi. hibernacula).

Hood. A pitcher leaf appendage that usually (or derivatively) hangs over the pitcher opening. Also called a lid.

Hybrid. Generally, a plant resulting from a cross between two species.

Keel. A ridge on a pitcher plant trap shaped roughly like the keel of a boat.

Lid. See Hood.

Marl bog. A bog in which the "soil" is alkaline marl with calcium carbonate.

Marsh. A tract of wet land, usually with fresh, salt, or brackish water to some depth, dominated by taller grasses and reeds.

Morphology. In botany, the form and nonmicroscopic anatomy of plants.

Obovate. Somewhat oval; a term applied to a leaf or petal which is attached at the narrow end so that the distal end appears broader.

Ovary. The lowermost portion of the pistil, in which eggs develop; the ovary will become the seed capsule after fertilization.

Palate. A prominence on the lower lip of a sympetalous, usually zygmorphic flower.

Passive trap. A carnivorous plant trap in which no plant movement occurs as an integral part of the trapping process.

Pedicel. A stalk supporting only a single flower.

Peduncle. The supporting stalk of one or several flowers.

Petal. The often colorful, form-giving, leaf like portions of a flower located above the calyx.

Petiole. A leaf stalk.

Photosynthesis. The synthesis of sugars from carbon dioxide and water by green plants with the participation of chlorophyl.

Phyllodia. Leafblade-like structures that are probably expanded or widened petioles.

Pistil. The female reproductive portion of a flower, in which seed will form.

Pitfall trap. A carnivorous plant trap into which the prey falls and cannot exit.

Polymorphism. The condition in which plants of the same species (or subspecific classification) have much variation in form.

Primordia. Primitive or undeveloped structures such as those antecedent to leaves.

Quadrifid. Having four parts or branches.

Raceme. A type of inflorescence in which there is a central stalk with the flowers attached by pedicels.

Reticulate. Netlike.

Rhizome. An elongate underground stem, which runs approximately parallel to the surface of the ground, from which branchings may arise.

Saccate. Saclike.

Savannah. In the sense used in this book, a sandy bog with short grasses and sedges and widely scattered longleaf pines.

Scale. A thin, membranous, colorless, often brittle degenerate leaflike structure.

Scape. A long, naked (without bracts, bracteoles, etc.) flowering stem arising from the ground, usually sup porting one flower or a tight cluster of flowers at the very top.

Self-pollination. The pollination of a stigma with pollen from the same flower.

Sepal. A flower part situated just below the petals. The sepal is usually green, but if the flower is technically without petals, the sepal may assume the form and color of a petal.

Sessile. Set immediately upon another structure without an intervening stalk, as a sessile leaf or gland.

Sexual reproduction. A form of reproduction in which some exchange of genetic material occurs between two organisms.

Species. The second word or most specific part of a binomial name (pi. species).

Sphagnum bog. A bog dominated by Sphagnum mosses.

Spur. In floral morphology, an elongate, closed appendage of the corolla of a sympetalous flower.

Stamen. The male reproductive structure of a flower, consisting of the anther and its supportive structure, the filament.

Stigma. The sticky, pollen-receptive, often knobby top portion of the pistil.

Stolon. A runner, or any basal branch that forms roots and gives rise to an independent plant.

Stratification. In horticulture, the process whereby seeds are exposed to a period of damp cold before they will germinate.

Style. The often columnar structure of the pistil between the stigma and ovary.

Swamp. A freshwater area, with water to some depth, dominated by trees.

Sympetalous. Having fused or joined petals.

Syngameon. A specialized evolutionary term referring to plant populations intermediate between the species level and extreme variants of the same species.

Threshold. In Utricularia, the thickened surface against which the edge of the door rests.

Trapdoor trap. A carnivorous plant trap in which an appendage closes over an opening and incarcerates the plant's prey.

Turion. In this book, a hibernaculum, but used mainly in reference to Utricularia.

Vegetative apomixis. A form of asexual reproduction in which plantlets bud from flower parts, including sepals, petals, stamens, and pistil.

Vegetative reproduction. See Asexual reproduction.

Velum. In Utricularia, a membranous structure for secondary closure; it rests below the door on the threshold.

Zygomorphic. Bilaterally symmetrical.

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