Mechanisms in Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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Cancer Step Outside The Box

Cancer Step Outside the Box is a 500+ page downloadable e-book. Discover The Truth About Cancer That 94% Of Doctors Don't Even Know Exist, And The Greedy Drug Companies Hope You Never Find Out. Best way to get rid of dead cancer cells as your tumors dissolve (Page 132) Household plant contains a compound showing significant anti-leukemic activity (Page 244) Burn your child with radiation OR Else! The shocking story of medical terrorism against 12-year-old Katie and her parents (Pages 80-1) Brain cancer specialist says, Id never have radiation if I had a brain tumor yet he still prescribes radiation for his patients! (Page 66) Natural herbal supplement tested 100% effective at reversing 7 types of cancer. All testing on this product was done independently with no physicians paid for their research. (Page 154) Chemotherapist with cancer tells colleagues, Do anything you want, but no chemotherapy! (Page 71) Jfks personal physician cured his own cancer with a natural cure that you can easily make on your stove. What it is, and how to make it.

Cancer Step Outside The Box Summary


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Phytomedicine and cancer

Recently, numerous reviews of plant derived chemo preventive compounds have identified their role in the treatment of cancer. The chemo preventive compounds, precisely known as phytopharmaceuticals, are dietary ingredients, which being food derived, are considered pharmacologically safe. Some of the common chemo- preventive dietary compounds derived from dietary ingredients are depicted in Fig. 6.11. Chemo- preventive plant compounds affect all phases of the cancer process, i.e., tumor initiation, promotion and progression. Botanical medicines are complex natural mixtures of pharmacological musltitaskers, simultaneously exerting influence on different levels and via different mechanisms. By contrast, pharmaceutical drugs are classically single synthetic compounds, ideally interfering or disrupting specific mechanism.

Ultraviolet Light And Skin Cancer Mutation And Immunity

Excessive exposure to UV radiation causes sunburn, premature aging of the skin, and mutations leading to skin cancer (Urbach, 1978). A gradual thinning of the ozone layer, which helps to screen our planet from solar radiation, and an increase in recreational sun exposure in the general population are thought to be significant factors underlying the steady rise in the incidence of all types of skin cancers over the past twenty years (Fears and Scotto, 1983 Green etal, 1985). The non-melanoma types of skin cancer (NMSC), squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and basal cell carcinoma (Weber, 1995), are the most common forms of human neoplasm, representing one-third of all new malignancies diagnosed in the United States (Strom and Yamamura, 1997). The number of new cases of NMSC diagnosed in the United States per year is approaching one million and continues to rise (Boring etal, 1992). Fortunately, NMSC has low mortality although it has considerable morbidity, causing disfigurement, loss...

Androgens And Breast Cancer

Clear independent risk factors that must be measured and controlled directly and intentionally. Postmenopausal women, for instance, can have increased risks for developing breast cancer, not only from having elevated estrogen but also from high levels of testosterone being converted to estrogen, low levels of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and the consequential higher levels of free steroid sex hormones.2 Numerous other risk factors are also linked to this enhanced risk, including elevated adrenal secretions and chronic hyperinsulinemia. A woman with elevated androgen levels is at a higher risk for developing breast cancer and other hormone-dependent diseases. Specific correlations with deleterious androgenic effects have been associated with increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate,3 androstenedione,4 and testosterone concentrations. However, the correlation of DHEA and breast cancer has not been substantiated in other research, and it appears that...

Iodine Deficiency And Gastric Cancer

Iodine deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. One study demonstrated an increased prevalence of gastric cancer and an increased risk of atrophic gastritis in areas with a greater than average prevalence of iodine-deficiency-related goiter. The researchers also reported that competitive inhibitors of intracellular iodine transport, such as nitrates, thiocyanate, and salt increased the risk of gastric cancer.38 Another study found a significant correlation between decreased mean urinary iodine levels and prevalence of stomach cancer, as well as a greater frequency of severe iodine deficiency in stomach cancer than in controls.39 There is also evidence for lower levels of iodine in cancerous gastric tissue than in surrounding normal tissue.40

Is there such a thing as immunity to cancer

Recently, Markiewicz and Gajewski (1999) reviewed the history of immune surveillance beginning with the discoveries of the 1960s, through the disappointments of the 1980s and the new hopes of the 1990s. First, immunologists realized that cancers contain tumor specific antigens which are developmental and oncogenic markers. On occasion, tumors contained viral antigens. However, attempts in the 1980s to develop cancer vaccines or to upregulate the immune response with BCG or Interleukin-2 were singularly unsuccessful. These failures led many to doubt the existence of immune surveillance (Stutman, 1974, 1979 Klein and Boon, 1993) but, as experience with immunotherapy of cancer increased, it became clear that human neoplastic disease is much more complex than any mouse model. The evidence for protective immune involvement in cancer is summarized by the reviews cited in Table 12.1 below. To paraphrase Markiewicz and Gajewski, we now know that in humans (i) immunosuppression increases the...

The Immune System and Cancer Prevention

By boosting the immune system, it has been claimed that fructooligosaccharide supplements reduce the risk of colorectal cancer developing (Kowhi et al., 1978, 1982 Pool-Zobel et al., 2002). In mice and rats, for example, fructooligosaccharides reduced colon carcinogens and the occurrence of colon tumors (Pierre et al., 1997), while dietary inulin and fructooligosaccharides suppressed chemically induced tumors (Taper and Roberfroid, 2002) and reduced genotoxic damage to the colonic epithelium in rats (Rowland, 1998). The release of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, from fermenting inulin and fructooligosaccharides, may play a role in suppressing colon cancer. Butyrate has been shown to have a direct antiproliferation effect on tumor cells in vitro (Kruh, 1982), while the release of butyrate has been correlated with a protective effect against colon cancer in experimental studies with rats (Bornet, 2001 McIntyre et al., 1993). Moreover, inulin injections can prolong the survival of...

Anticancer properties

Perillyl alcohol, a component of the EO of lavender as well as the most important metabolite of d-limonene, is currently under investigation as a chemo-preventative and chemo-therapeutic agent. A pharmacokinetic study has been performed using stable-isotope labelled internal standards. Two new major metabolites besides intact perillyl alcohol, perillic acid and cis- and trans-dihydro perillic acid have been found in human plasma (Zhang et al., 1999). Another study, dealing with the same monoterpene alcohol, was designed to test its chemo-preventative potential especially in a lung tumour-bioassay. Perillyl alcohol is an inhibitor of farnesyl transferase. In the early development stages of mouse lung carcinogenesis the ras-protein undergoes a series of modifications, and farnesylation at the cysteine is one of these, which leads to the anchoring of ras-p 21-gen to the plasma membrane in its biologically active state. Perillyl alcohol administered to test mice showed a 22 per cent...

Anticarcinogenic Properties

The inhibitory activity of pomegranate seed oil (PGO) against colon cancer in rats was recently evaluated by Kohno et al.63 Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Western countries. As previously discussed, pomegranate seed oil is rich in punicic acid, c9,t11,c13-conjugated linolenic acid (CLN), which makes up about 75 of the total linolenic acid in PGO. In an earlier study, Kohno et al. demonstrated that feeding rats CLN, isolated from bitter gourd, causes a significant reduction in colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by azoxymethane.64 These authors suggested that dietary intake of CLN may have an inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis. Their results indicated that dietary administration of PGO rich in c9,t11,c13-CLN, even at the low dose of 0.1 CLN, significantly inhibits the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic adenocarcinoma in rats without causing any adverse effects. Such results may reflect the potential chemopreventive effect of PGO on...

Difference InGel Electrophoresis DIGE and Stable Isotope Codes for Quantitative Proteomics in 2D Maps

As an alternative to Lys minimal labeling, Cy dyes (Cy3, Cy5) that target Cys rather than Lys residues in proteins prior to DIGE analysis were reported 48 . These new dyes were recently used for analysis of specific populations of cells in cancer tissues 49 . The idea behind this new set is the opposite of that on which the original DIGE is based. In other words, the minimal labeling of Lys residues is replaced by the maximum (saturation) labeling of the Cys residues. A close look at the data presented in both works suggests that the use of the new set of dyes will not add any advantage to the existing performance of this protocol in fact, it might be detrimental. In the example given by Shaw et al. 48 the authors compared silver-stained 2D maps with their Cy3 Cy5 Lys and Cy3 Cy5 Cys counterparts. Such a comparison revealed superior sensitivity and a superior spot number in the silver-stained map. The inferior number of spots in the maps labeled with Cy dyes strongly indicates...

Processing and utilization

Isoflavones also can be extracted from lactoserum waste water. Soybean isoflavone consists of flavone glycoside (97-98 ) and aglycones (2-3 ). Agly-cones have biological activity. Isoflavone glycoside is separated from agly-cones by the actions of different isoflavone-glucosidases, and the genistein with biological activity is then released. Genistein can attenuate postmeno-pausal osteoporosis in humans. Isoflavones have inhibitory effects on the early transformation and proliferation of cancer cells. They can effectively inhibit the angiogenesis of a cancer structure and thus block the supply of nutrients to cancer cells. Therefore, isoflavone is of therapeutic use in breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, leukaemia and others.

Twoelectron reactions

Among the toxins detoxified by glutathione -transferases are several carcinogens. Most chemical carcinogens require activation to reactive elec-trophilic forms by phase I enzymes (cytochromes P-450) in order to exert their toxic and neoplastic effects. The resultant electrophiles are susceptible to metabolic conjugation and other types of detoxifications by phase II enzymes, which include glutathione transferases, NAD(P)H quinone reductase, and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases. The balance between phaseI and phaseII enzymes is an important determinant of whether exposure to carcinogens will result in toxicity and neoplasia (Talalay et al. 1990). Mammalian cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms for protection against the toxic and neoplastic effects of electrophilic metabolites of carcinogens and reactive oxygen species. Glutathione transferases and high intracellular levels of GSH play an important role in providing such protection. Glutathione S-transferases are grouped into four...

Terminology and types of senescence

At the cellular level, as shown in the cartoon in Figure 1.1, a cell's life history consists of mitotic and postmitotic processes (Gan, 2003). A cell may undergo a certain number of mitotic divisions to produce daughter cells. After a limited number of divisions (e.g. about 40 divisions in human fibroblasts), the cell can no longer divide mitotically. Once a cell ceases mitotic division permanently, it is called mitotic senescence. In the literature concerning yeast, germline cells and mammalian cells in culture, this type of senescence is often referred to as cellular senescence, replica-tive senescence, proliferative senescence or, sometimes, replicative aging (Sedivy, 1998 Takahashi et al., 2000 Ben-Porath and Weinberg, 2005 Patil et al, 2005). If a cell keeps dividing and fails to undergo mitotic senescence (e.g. cancer cells), it is said to be 'immortalized'. Therefore, mitotic senescence is a mechanism to suppress cancer development. If a cell stops mitosis temporarily due to...

Nutritional Strategies for Prevention

Many of us have known, or will know, someone who suffers with colon cancer. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 73,182 men and 70,763 women were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and 27,990 men and 27,793 women died from colorectal cancer in 2003.1 Commonly recognized risk factors for colon cancer include obesity and low consumption of vegetables, fish, and whole-grain cereals.2 Additional risk factors include a genetic predisposition, as in the case of familial polyposis, and other conditions, such as chronic ulcerative colitis. This article reviews a portion of the growing evidence that nutrition and supplementation may have very significant roles to play in maintaining a healthy, cancer-free colon. Since it was first suggested that a high-fiber diet was protective against colon cancer,3 several potentially preventative mechanisms against cancer have been proposed and...

Nutritional View Of Intestinal Inflammation

The role that inflammatory processes, such as those modulated by COX-1 and -2 have in colon cancer, may well be significant in fact, several studies have demonstrated a definite inverse relationship between the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of colon cancer.18,19 In fact, this has led some authorities to recommend aspirin as a preventive. One of the proposed mechanisms of protection by NSAIDs is that, by inhibiting the action of the COX enzymes, production of potentially tumor-favoring prostaglandins is reduced. While it may be the case that the advent of specific COX-2 inhibitors will allow for benefit in this regard without the side effects (such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal damage) of less-specific NSAIDs, there may be distinct advantages to taking a more broad anti-inflammatory approach that includes supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found naturally in fish oil such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic...

Applications in Biotechnology

Economically viable), but also for the production of French fries and crisps. High-starch varieties contain less water, and thereby reduce processing costs because the water is replaced by oil during cooking and the oil costs money. It also increases the fat content of the product. Favouring starch production also reduces the concentrations of free sugars. These cause blackening and can react with asparagine during baking, frying or roasting to produce acrylamide, a nerve poison and likely carcinogen (reviewed in Halford et al. 2007 Muttucumaru et al. 2008).

Molecular Classification of PI3K

Class-II PI3Ks are structurally distinct from the class I PI3Ks, and use only phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate as substrates. They are constitutively associated with membrane structures (including plasma and intracel-lular membranes) and with nuclei. Several lines of evidence suggest a potential role for these enzymes in agonist-mediated signal transduction (Foster et al. 2003), migration of cancer cells (Maffucci et al. 2005), suppression of apoptotic cell death (Kang et al. 2005), exocytosis (Meunier et al. 2005), pattern formation (MacDougall et al. 2004), cytoskeletal organization (Katso et al. 2006), and insulin signaling (Falasca et al. 2007).

Health aspects of carotenoids

In human nutrition, carotenoids play an important role as a source of provitamin A. In the gastrointestinal tract 3-carotene gets converted to vitamin A, which plays an important role in the regulation of vision, growth and reproduction (Ong and Choo, 1997). More recently, however, the protective effects of carotenoids against serious disorders such as cancer (Peto et al., 1981 Shekelle et al., 1981), heart disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, oral tumours and degenerative eye disease have been recognized, and have stimulated intensive research into the role of carotenoids as antioxidants and as regulators of the immune response system. The antioxidant property of 3-carotene by its effective radical trapping was studied by Burton and Ingold (1984). Kunert and Tappel (1983) reported the efficient reduction of lipid peroxidation by prior treatment with 3-carotene in guinea pigs.

Distribution of Deserts Worldwide

Earth's major deserts lie within the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn where stable, high atmospheric pressure creates an arid climate at or near latitudes 30 N and 30 S. Deserts are generally located in the interior of large continents. Continental deserts are separated from ocean moisture by large distances or topographic barriers, such as large mountain ranges, which create a rainshadow. Deserts may also be situated on the west coast of large continents adjacent to cold ocean currents, which draw moisture away from the land. Subtropical deserts, such as the Mojave Desert of California, lie within the latitudes of 30 N and 30 S. Cool coastal deserts, including the Peruvian Atacama Desert, occur where cold offshore currents generate high atmospheric pressure and large masses of dry air, which create arid conditions upon their descent. Rainshadow deserts, including the Great Basin Desert in the United States or the Gobi Desert in Mongolia, occur where a topographical barrier such as a...

Female Hormonal Health So Much More Than Pms Or Menopause

Even in the new millennium, with all the technology and broad dissemination and free flow of information, many busy clinicians are still performing the same diagnostic hormonal workups that have been conducted for decades. Frequently, a few specific data points are targeted, such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) or estradiol and progesterone. Yet, primary care practitioners have all been trained to realize that hormonal pathways are dependent upon homeostasis of other pathways to promote and sustain optimal health.1 Thus, it makes sense that examining the bigger hormonal picture, the lay of the land,'' so to speak, yields facts needed to maximize clinical outcomes. The common practice of examining select and narrow hormonal indices is akin to looking at a few trees within a forest and making ajudgment on the ecology of the entire forest. Until recently, affordable testing that provided a truly comprehensive look at a patient's hormonal profile was not...

Early HaustoriumDevelopment

Haustoria develop on roots of Orobanchaceae in response to host factors, both chemical and tactile (Atsatt et al. 1978 Riopel and Timko 1995) . The first haustorium-inducing factor (HIF) to be identified was 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzo-quinone (DMBQ) (Chang and Lynn 1986) (Fig. 2). DMBQ is a common component of plant cell walls and has been observed in at least 48 genera belonging to 29 plant families (Handa et al. 1983). Due to its electrophilic, oxidant nature, DMBQ has allelopathic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic characteristics (Brambilla et al. 1988). Cellular damage results from the redox cycling between quinone and semiquinone states, giving rise to reactive oxygen species (Testa 1995).

Lectins Recognition and Storage of Nutrients

AOL and ABL are members of a growing family of T antigen specific lectins that are unique to fungi (Carrizo et al. 2005 Leonidas et al. 2007 Birck et al. 2004 Iijima et al. 2002). Recent studies on some of these lectins imply that AOL can bind to endogenous receptor molecules, and have other functions apart from being a storage protein. ABL has anti proliferative effects on human cancer cells, and in such cells, ABL selectively block the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) - dependent nuclear protein import system (Yu et al. 2002). Notably, AOL is located in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus (Rosen et al. 1997). Another function has been suggested for the lectin of the soil borne pathogen Scelrotium rolfsii. This lectin is developmentally regulated and expressed at high levels in sclerotia. At maturation, the lectin associates with cell wall-associated endogenous receptors. Preliminary characterization indicates that these receptors are glycosphingolipids, and it was proposed...

Principle and Independent Component Analyses

Similar to PCA, independent component analysis (ICA) is an unsupervised method to analyze data 88 . In recent years, it has become increasingly popular as an alternative to PCA. However, in ICA, different components represent non-overlapping information, thought to be caused by unrelated processes or causes, thus termed independent components. ICA differs from other factor analysis in that it considers the non-Gaussianity (or super-Gaussianity) of the biological data, thus providing a more flexible model to represent them. In biological systems, data often behave in a non-Gaussian manner. For instance, variables that are characterized by more values close to zero and or very large ones are said to have a super-Gaussian distribution. The probability density thus is peaked at zero and has heavy tails. Scholz et al. 66 proposed a PCA preprocessing coupled to ICA to elaborate data arising from metabolic fingerprinting. This PCA processing aims at reducing the numbers of variables, since...

Sphingolipid signaling in plants

A role for Cer in mediating the effects of AAL-toxin exposure was suggested by the partial rescue of AAL-toxin-treated tomato leaves by exogenous ceramide application (Brandwagt et al., 2000). While this does not seem consistent with the proposed role for LCBs (or LCBPs) described above, it was suggested that the relative levels (or ratio) of LCB and Cer may constitute a switch, triggering PCD (Spassieva et al., 2002). Such a rheostat model has been proposed to operate in animal cells for LCBP and Cer (Spiegel and Milstien, 2003 Taha et al, 2006). While this merits testing in plants as well, it should include an assessment of the contribution of LCBPs to the rheostat. As well, testing of the rheostat hypothesis should also take into account the levels of specific species of LCB, LCBP, and Cer, in light of recent studies indicating that accumulation of C24 ceramide species induces cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 breast cancer cells while C16 ceramide accumulation is associated with...

Endocytic Cycling of Mammalian MDRPGPs

MDR PGPs in both mammals and A. thaliana appear to be regulated by en-docytic cycling. Human MDR1 has been localized in DRMs that have been implicated in endocytic membrane trafficking and protein sorting (reviewed in Brown and London, 1998). Human MDR PGPs in hepatic canalicular cells have been shown to cycle between a relatively large endomembrane pool and the PM in response to taurocholate or cyclic AMP stimulus (Kipp and Arias, 2002) and, in multidrug-resistant cancer cells, MDR1 is actively cycled between the PM and an endosomal membrane compartment via a clathrin-dependent mechanism (Kim et al., 1997). Cycling of MDR PGPs was also found to be dependent on the action of phosphoinositol-3-kinases (PI3K), which are essential for vesicle trafficking in yeast, animal, and plant cells (Fruman et al., 1998). Additionally, MDR1 labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein has been shown to undergo vesicular trafficking, dis

Natural Functions Of

Natural functions for the GST have been discussed since their discovery. The ubiquitous distribution and the abundant presence of GST in various tissues of animals and plants may be a sign for their obvious importance. GST of mammals, especially rodents and human have been investigated thoroughly for their physico-chemical and catalytic properties (Mannervik und Danielson 1988, Picket and Lu 1989, Daniel 1993) because of their important role in toxin conjugation, drug metabolism and anticancer therapy. Natural functions of GST in plants have only scarcely been investigated (Table 5). However, there are several reports on the detoxification of toxic endogenous metabolites. For example, in wheat all eight characterized iso-forms have activity with crotonaldehyde and an isothiocyanate. Furthermore, they exhibit all glutathione peroxidase activity as do certain maize GSTs. Phytohormones, fungal and bacterial toxins may also be conjugated, but experimental evidence is scarce.

Helena Sestakova and Bohumil Turek

Immunologic studies are generally concerned with the response of an organism to foreign (extraneous) substances entering the body. The basic function of the immune system is to differentiate between foreign and one's own molecules, and to protect against extraneous proteins. An immune reaction takes the form either of a specific response mediated by T and B cells, or of a nonspecific (natural) response mediated by macrophages, natural killer cells, and polymorpho-nuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). A positive or negative effect on immunity of substances obtained from plants or of nutritional factors is therefore very important for maintaining the integrity of an organism. One of the most important mechanisms underlying the natural defense of an organism is phagocytosis. Quantitative as well as qualitative insufficiency of the system of phagocytosis results, among other things, in an increased sensitivity of an individual to infectious agents. PMNLs are responsible for natural defense, and...

Naturopathic Approach To Treating Pain

Cancer, autoimmune conditions, and circulatory compromise.1 Protein synthesis is compromised by a number of conditions, and protein-energy malnutrition is associated with impaired muscle function, immune dysfunction, decreased bone mass, impaired cognitive function, delayed wound healing (even wounds caused by surgical interventions), and increased morbidity.2 Medical conditions, including gastrointestinal (GI) disease, malabsorption syndromes, and chronic and acute infections, can lead to micronutrient deficiencies as well as increased protein and energy requirements. Patients with chronic pain often use prescription medicines heavily, which can, in turn, compound nutrient malabsorption, GI conditions, and loss of appetite.

Flavonoids have multiple functions in plants

Many flavonoids are antioxidants in acting as radical scavengers for reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus preventing the peroxidation of lipids. As constituents of nutrients, they are assumed to be protectants against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For this reason, nutrients containing flavonoids (e.g., green tea, soy sauce, and red wine) have been regarded as beneficial for health.

Biotechnological Potential of ECM Fungi Producing Metal Chelating Agents

However, siderophores can have other important applications related to the environment in the uptake of metals from industrial waste, low-grade ores, serpentine soils, contaminated terrestrial and aquatic environments, tailings of abandoned mines, etc. The uptake of metals can serve to remediate an environment and or recover metals for recycling. In addition, the capacity to chelate actinides (Pu, U, Np, and Th) has been demonstrated in siderophores and for this reason their application has been proposed for the remediation of radioactive waste and the reprocessing of nuclear fuel (Hernlem et al. 1999 Renshaw et al. 2002, 2003). The majority of these studies have been conducted with commercial hydroxamate siderophores like desferrioxamine B and some with siderophore-producing soil microbes (John et al. 2001 Keith-Roach et al 2005 Mullen et al 2007). Therefore, this is an area where other fungal hydroxamate siderophores, like those produced by ECM fungi, could have a...

Relationship to Tissue and Organ Development

Over the past two decades, it has become clear that Tyr phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in a variety of important signaling pathways in multicellular organisms. It is deeply involved in the development of multicellular organisms, including higher eukaryotes such as mammals as well as lower eukaryotes such as sponge and hydra 8 and even prokaryotes such as M. xanthus 9 . In animals, PTKs and PTPs play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation 10 . Because unregulated Tyr phosphorylation signaling causes a breakdown in the normal regulation of cell proliferation and motility, leading to diseases including cancer, this signaling pathways is now a major focus of biomedical research.

RC Martin1 PP Liu2 and H Nonogaki2

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small 21 nucleotide regulatory molecules, were first discovered during developmental studies on Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas) Dougherty and were found to be important in regulating the timing of larval development (Lee et al., 1993). Recently there has been an explosion in research related to miRNAs. They have been found to be important in the regulation of developmental processes in a wide variety of animals and plants (reviewed by Ambros, 2004 Kidner and Martienssen, 2005). miRNAs are involved in diverse processes such as glucose-mediated insulin secretion (Poy et al., 2004), brain morphogenesis (Giraldez et al., 2005), cancer (Calin et al., 2004 Gregory and Shiekhattar, 2005), as well as plant responses to dehydration, salinity, cold, gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) (Achard et al., 2004 Sunkar and Zhu, 2004).

Possible Causes of Skin Problems

Precancerous or cancerous lesions Glutathione is a potent antioxidant and its enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, is important in proper skin health and prevention of DNA damage in cells. Studies have shown that mice treated with esterified glutathione prior to ultraviolet-B exposure had increased cutaneous glutathione levels and decreased numbers of sunburned cells.47 In a small study, a combination product of reduced glutathione and anthocyanins was shown to decrease radiation-induced dermatitis in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer, allowing for more consistent treatment.48 Curcumin, (Curcuma longa) is a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer agent. Studies indicate that topical curcumin improves wound healing. In one study, wounds

Maintenance of the Plant Genome under Natural Light

One UV-induced mammalian response to persisting DNA damage is the induction of programmed cell death. This actively induced apoptosis and necrosis of damaged cells leads to the inflammation observed in sunburn. The induction of cell death has two beneficial effects the resulting bursts of radicals are thought to further stimulate the repair response of neighboring cells, and the suicide of damaged cells precludes their possible progression into cancer. Plant cells can also be killed by very high doses of UV light, in what might be a programmed response (as the genomic laddering characteristic of programmed cell death occurs), but it is not clear that such a response occurs under natural light. Given plants natural resistance to the lethal effects of cancer, it is possible that plants differ from mammals in this aspect of UV-response, and lack a sensitive apoptotic response to DNA damage.

When There Is Not Enough No

Because of their physiologic effects on the body, manipulation of NO levels can provide avenues for health modification. Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, and CAD can be attenuated by increases in NO synthesis and activity. Anemia, cancer, diabetes, and erectile dysfunction can also be ameliorated by NO manipulation. Both natural therapies and pharmaceuticals can augment NO bioavailability.

Pharmaceuticals That Affect No Levels

While there are clearly a large number of natural therapies that can address NO dysfunctions, there are also pharmaceuticals that are aimed at the problem. Nitroglycerin, sodium ni-troprusside, and other nitrates and nitrites increase NO in the endothelium and cause vasodilation of the arteries. These drugs are used to treat hypertensive crisis, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra), and sildenafil (Viagra) are pharmaceuticals prescribed for erectile dysfunction. They are phosphodiesterase inhibitors that cause vasodilation and hypotension. They are contraindicated for patients who are taking nitrates because NO increases cGMP by activating the enzyme guanyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase metabolizes cGMP. In other words, the enhancement of NO activity by pharmaceuticals may potentiate the effects of the nitrates.67 It is prudent to use these pharmaceuticals cautiously, especially with patients who have leukemia,...

Dna Damage And Repair

Excision repair involves recognition of DNA lesions, nicking of the damaged DNA close to the damage, removal of the damaged fragment, and resynthesis with the intact strand as a blueprint to fill in the gap. Certain yeast rad mutants and the seven complementation groups of the heritable human disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XPA-XPG) are deficient in components of the nucleotide excision repair machinery. This deficiency leads to an extreme UV sensitivity and skin cancer predisposition in XP patients (e.g. Friedberg, 2001). A number of Arabidopsis mutants with UV-B hypersensitivity are impaired in homologues of these human and yeast proteins UVH1 (human XPF yeast RAD1 homologue, Fidantsef et al., 2000 Liu et al., 2000), UVH3 UVR1 (XPG RAD2 homologue, Liu et al., 2001), UVH6 (XPD RAD3 homologue, Liu et al., 2003), and UVR7 (ERCC1 RAD10 homologue, Hefner et al., 2003). Thus, the nucleotide excision repair pathway appears to be functionally conserved in plants and to play a crucial role in...

Applications of modified levels of plant PDglucans

Officinarum), while numerous forage and fodder grass species support the production of sheep, cattle and other domesticated livestock. Maize (Zea mays) is also used widely for animal feed, while switchgrass (Panicum virga-tum) and other perennial grasses are showing considerable promise as future biomass energy crops in North America (McLaren 2005 Burton et al. 2006 ). In the areas of human health, the (1,3 1,4)-P -d- glucans are components of dietary fibre that are highly beneficial in the prevention and treatment of serious human health conditions, including colorectal cancer, high serum cholesterol and cardiovascular disease, obesity, and non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes (Brennan & Cleary 2005). In contrast, (1,3 1,4)-P-d-glucans have antinutritive effects in monogastric animals such as pigs and poultry (Brennan & Cleary 2005), and are important in many cereal processing applications, including malting and brewing.

Plant Mitochondria and Reactive Oxygen

Although the exact site of this ROS production in plant mitochondria has not been formally established, the transfer of single electrons to oxygen to form superoxide can occur via electron transport carriers with an appropriate (i.e. sufficiently low) redox potential. The high degree of conservation of electron transport chain components between plant and animal mitochondria suggests common sites of superoxide production. In animals, there are two defined sites in the respiratory chain where single electrons can be transferred to molecular oxygen resulting in the formation of the superoxide anion. These are complex I (the major NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase) (Boveris et al., 1972 Beyer, 1990). Both of these complexes are involved in ubiquinone-ubiquinol interconversions and it is the presence of the reaction-intermediate radical, ubisemiquinone, that is thought to be responsible for electron leakage from both complexes (Raha and...

Ectomycoremediation of Organic Xenobiotics

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants that represent an important risk to the environment and human health (Kuiper et al. 2004 Koivula et al. 2004). PAHs consist of a diverse group of organic molecules with a wide range of chemical properties (number of aromatic rings, molecular weight, and structural configuration), water solubility, and volatility. Particularly, higher-ringed PAHs are recalcitrant to degradation and include toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic compounds. PAH contaminations of the soil are mainly the result of leakage from old storage tanks or natural oil reservoirs, oil spills, road surfaces, domestic waste, incomplete fossil fuel combustion, former gas plant facilities, and tanker accidents (Morgan and Watkinson 1989).

Use Of Medicinal Plants Of Ginger Refrences

Murakami, A., Takahashi, D., Kiroshita, T., Koshimizu, K., Kim, H.W., Yoshihiro, A., Naka-mura, Y, Jiwajinda, S., Terao, J., and Ohigashi, H. (2002) Zerumbone, a Southeast Asian ginger sesquiterpene, markedly suppresses free radical generation, pro-inflammatory protein production, and cancer cell proliferation accompanied by apoptosis The alpha and beta-unsaturated carbonyl group is a prerequisite. Carcinogenesis, 23, 795-802.

Cytotoxicity using Human Cell Lines

The only Melaleuca oil that is currently considered as a potential carcinogen is the oil of Melaleuca bracteata which contains approximately 80 methyl eugenol. According to Randerath et al. (1984) and Tisserand and Balacs (1995) this oil should be avoided as currently the oil is considered carcinogenic to rodents. Until such time as it is assessed as non-carcinogenic to humans, this advice should be heeded. Randerath, K., Haglund, R., Phillips, D. and Vijayaraj Reddy, M. (1984) 32P-Post-labelling analysis of DNA adducts formed in livers of animals treated with safrole, estragole and other naturally-ocurring alkenylbenzenes 1. Adult female CD-1 mice. Carcinogensis, 5(12), 1613-1622.

Fixation and preservation of plankton

Formaldehyde is usually made from the oxidation of methanol, using silver or copper as a catalyst. The concentration provided by the manufacturer is typically a 40 solution, with a trace of methanol to reduce polymerisation to paraformaldehyde (a white precipitate - which may be cleared by warming or with a few pellets of sodium hydroxide). This concentrated solution is pungent and carcinogenic (Box 4.9). Sometimes it is hard to tell (during arduous or sleepless field conditions) if formaldehyde has been added to the plankton sample. A few drops of a stain such as eosin in your 40 stock solution is a useful indicator. Note that fixatives and preservatives are poisonous and some are probably carcinogenic. Adequate care should be taken at all times. Examination of live, non-preserved samples is best. Otherwise all samples should be preserved immediately, or should be placed in dark cool containers (eskies or fridges) to ensure that no further primary production or grazing can take...

Toxic Secondary Metabolites of Fungi Mycotoxins in Oxidative Stress

Mycotoxins are harmful and often carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by a range of widespread fungi belonging in the main to Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera (Golinski et al. 2009) . In general, they are low-molecular-weight compounds synthesized by filamentous fungi and are capable of causing disease and death in plants, animals and humans (Bennett and Klich 2003). While in the literature there are

Xanthoeriodictyol Structure

G. biloba contains flavonoids (bilobalide and ginkgolide A, B, and C). Ginkgo has shown to increase production of adenosine triphosphate, resulting in increased cerebral glucose metabolism. Ginkgolide has been cited for its treatment of severe sepsis and for its effect of PAF receptor binding. Ginkgo inhibits platelet activating factor (PAF), thereby preventing PAF-induced clot formation and promoting clot breakdowns. Similarly, ginkgo inhibits PAF-induced bronchospasm. A standardized extract of G. biloba containing 24 ginkgo flavonglycosides of 40 mg is prescribed as peripheral vasodilator. Ginkgetin (Fig. 5.137) is reported to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer and antiviral activites.

Infleunce Of Soil Fertility On Soybean Production

Costa G, Spitz E (1997) Infleunce of cadmium on soluble carbohydrates, free amino-acids, protein content of in vitro cultured Lupinus albus. Plant Sci 128 131-140 Crowley DE, Wang YC, Reid CP, Szansiszlo PJ (1991) Mechanism of iron acquisition from siderophores by micro-organisms and plants. Plant Soil 130 179-198 Dabas S, Singh RP (1995) Differential effect of lead on nitrate reductase activity and organic nitcrogen content in mung bean (var. P-105) seedlings. Indian J Plant Physiol 38 155-157 Datta AK, Misra M, North SL, Kasprzak KS (1992) Enhancement by nickel(II) and L-histidine of 2'-deox-yguanosine oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Carcinogenesis 13 283-287 Datta AK, Shi X, Kasprzak KS (1993) Effect of carnos-ine, homocarnosine anserine on hydroxylation of the guanine moiety in 2'-deoxyguanosine, DNA and nucleohistone and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of nickel(II). Carcinogenesis 14 417-422 Davies BE (1980) Trace element pollution. In Davies BE (ed) Applied oil trace...

Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations

Pannarin inhibited cell growth and induces cell death in human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells.The orcinol derivatives tenuiorin and methyl orsellinate present in the extract of Peltigera leucophlebia (Nyl.) Gyeln. (Peltigeraceae) exhibited in vitro inhibitory activity against 15-lipoxygenase from soybeans. A correlation has been observed between 5-lipoxygenase inhibition and antiproliferative effects for related lichen metabolites. On this account, tenuiorin and methyl orsellinate were further tested for antiproliferative activity on cultured human breast, pancreatic and colon cancer cell lines. Methyl orsellinate lacked antiproliferative activity but tenuiorin depicted moderate activity. Bianthraquinone glycosides, colleflaccinosides isolated from Collema flaccidum (Ach.) Ach. (Collemataceae) collected in Israel and Russia, were reported to have antitumor activity.

General Requirements For Promoting Healthy Skin

Lifestyle factors are critical for maintaining healthy skin. Smoking can cause dryness and premature aging of the skin. Sun exposure is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, and hyperpigmentation of the skin, requiring a limit to sun exposure and the use of sunscreen during prolonged exposure. Clinically, exercise has been shown to help promote a radiant, glowing complexion.

Cardiovascular Disease Statistics

In the U.S.119 and Canada,23 stroke is the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer, accounting for close to 7 of all deaths. Each year approximately 500,000 Americans suffer a first stroke and another 200,000 experience a recurrent attack.1 Demographically, more women than men have a stroke increasing age and race (African Americans) increases the chance of suffering a stroke. Of the two types of stroke, 8 to 12 of ischemic strokes and 37 to 38 of hemorrhagic strokes result in death within 30 days, while one quarter of all stroke victims die within a year. Of the survivors, 14 will have another stroke (or TIA) within a year.1

Pteridium aquilinum sens lat Pteridaceae

The toxic properties of Pteridium aquilinum L., the common bracken fern, have been known to humankind for a very long time. Two principal causes of trouble are its carcinogenic properties (M. Saito et al., 1975 I. A. Evans, 1976 Hirono, 1986) and, unrelated, the presence of a potent thiaminase I, which is the causative agent in neuropathies observed in stock animals that have eaten bracken (W. C. Evans, 1986 Fenwick, 1988). A large literature has accumulated on the subject of the carcinogenic compounds of bracken, among which are several that treat the chemical structure of the compounds (e.g., Niwa et al., 1983 Ojika et al., 1987 K. Saito et al., 1990), their action on DNA (Ojika et al., 1989), and analytical applications (Alonso-Amelot et al., 1992). The main carcinogen from bracken, ptaquiloside 391 , and its conversion product, pterosin-B 392 , are illustrated in Fig. 5.2.

Thioldisulphide interchange reactions

J., Spencer S. R. 1990. Regulation of enzymes that detoxify the electrophilic forms of chemical carcinogens. - Princess Takamatsu Symp. 21 177187. Talalay P., Fahey J. W., Holtzclaw W. D., Prestera T., Zhang Y. 1995. Chemoprotection against cancer by phase 2 enzyme induction. - Toxicol. Lett. 82-83 173-179.

Toxicology Of Caraway 1141 Toxicity of Caraway towards

The contamination of foods and herbs by fungi is a problem of great importance. This is mainly because of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by numerous species. For example Aspergillus flavus, a very popular mildew fungus, produces aflatoxins which are the strongest known natural carcinogenic substances. They can be consumed with contaminated food and herbs, cumulated in liver and result in cancer. Pande and Bangale (1994) analysing the mycoflora associated with umbelliferous plants used in Ayurvedic medicines (Foeniculum vulgare, Peucedanum graveolens and Carum carvi) recorded a total of 50 species of fungi belonging to 30 genera. The most hazardous fungus being present on Fructus carvi was Aspergillus spp. responsible for aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin production. El Kady et al. (1995) using thin layer chromatography analysed 24 spices extracts. Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were discovered in some of them, including caraway. It means that caraway fruits and preparations...

Biosynthesis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids MIA


The approximately 2,000 MIA chemical structures described so far are widespread in a large number of plant species (Ziegler and Facchini 2008). Some of these molecules are of interest to human health, such as the anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine and the antihypertensive drug ajmalicine specifically produced in Catharanthus roseus, the anti-arrythmic ajmaline produced in Rauvolfia serpentina, or the anticancer compound camptothecin produced mostly in Camptotheca acuminata (Fig. 8.1, Table 8.1). These molecules are part of the large array of MIA Anticancer Anticancer Blocking an undesired production of alkaloid may be achieved by silencing an essential enzymatic step early in the pathway. For instance, engineering of decaffeinated coffee plants is in progress in Coffea canophora, by silencing 7-methyl-xanthine methyltransferase (Ashihara et al. 2006). Due to the high conservation of the amino acid sequence, the two other N-methyltransferases were also down-regulated....

Fatty Acid Desaturases

A number of studies have demonstrated apparently beneficial effects of diets based on high MUFA content primarily derived from olive oil (Kris-Etherton et al., 1988 Spiller et al., 1992 Hegsted et al., 1993 Curb et al., 2000). The health implications of palmitoleic acid were first addressed by Yamori et al. (1986) and Abraham et al. (1989). Curb et al. (2000) compared the effects of (i) a typical American diet high in saturated fat - 37 energy from fat , (ii) the American Heart Association 'step 1' diet - 30 energy from fat (half the saturated fatty acids, normal amounts of MUFAs and PUFAs, and high levels of carbohydrates), and (iii) a macadamia nut-based mono-unsaturated fat diet (37 energy from fat). When compared with the typical diet, the 'step 1' and macadamia nut diets both had potentially beneficial effects on cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. These results are consistent with previously reported lipid-altering benefits of MUFA-rich diets, particularly those involving...

Sexhormone Binding Globulin

Levels of sex-hormone binding globulin, as previously mentioned, play a role in numerous conditions. Low levels are associated with hormone-related conditions such as breast cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, and insulin resistance. Furthermore, decreased levels of this protein are associated with cardiovascular risk factors as well. A recent study showed that low SHBG is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, increased triglycerides, and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in men and women. In women, decreased SHBG was also associated with elevated apolipoprotein B and diabetes.10 SHBG has also been shown to inhibit the estradiol-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells.11 DIET, LIFESTYLE, HORMONES, AND BREAST CANCER Chronic hyperinsulinemia is intimately linked to diet, lifestyle, and the development of a hormonal profile that correlates with increased breast cancer and hormone-related disease risk. What is noteworthy is the ability of insulin to inhibit hepatic...

Applied Aspects Of Bee Pollen

Bee pollen is often referred as the 'perfect food'. Studies from all over the world indicate that the pollen collected by bees from the stamen of flowers is worth its weight in gold. Bee pollen contains 22 amino acids (and higher amounts of the eight essential ones than most high-protein foods), 27 mineral salts, the full range of vitamins, hormones, carbohydrates, and more than 5,000 enzymes and coenzymes necessary for digestion and healing. A little known fact is that bee pollen is also rich in the bioflavonoids, important for capillary strength, and in vitamin B12. It is, in fact, one of the few vegetable sources of this vitamin. Preliminary observation indicates that bee pollen may prevent cancer. The Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research in New York City has been studying the effects of bee pollen, royal jelly and bee venom on cancer.

Reference For Medicinal Plant Pomegranate

Kohno, H. et al., Pomegranate seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid suppresses chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Sci., 95, 481, 2004. Melgarejo, P. et al., Total lipids content and fatty acid composition of seed oils from six pomegranate cultivars. J. Sci. Food and Agric., 69, 253, 1995. Heftmann, E., Ko, S.T., and Bennett, R.D., Identification of estrone in pomegranate seeds, Phytochemistry, 5, 1337, 1966. Afaq, F. et al., Anthocyanin and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-kB Pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice, Internl. J. Cancer, 113, 423, 2005. 63. Kohno, H. et al., Pomegranate seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid suppresses chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats, Cancer Sci., 95, 481, 2004. 64. Kohno, H. et al., Dietary conjugated linolenic acid inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats, Jpn J. Cancer Res., 93, 133, 2002. 67. Tamir, S. et al., Estrogenic and...

Spore release and dispersal

H., Svendsen, G. W., Ingerslev, F., and Hansen, H. C. B. (2005). Genotoxic activity and inhibition of soil respiration by ptaquiloside, a bracken fern carcinogen. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24, 2751-2756. Siman, S. E., Povey, A. C., O'Connor, P. J., Ward, T. H., Margison, G. P., and Sheffield, E. (2000). Fern spore extracts can damage DNA. British Journal of Cancer, 83, 69-73.

Plastic Grass The Artificial Weed

Young athletes perhaps don't spend as many hours per day on the athletic field as they do on their home lawns. My daughters, after a game, generally put their shoes away (okay, they leave them on the floor of the car) and take off the uniform shortly afterward (and leave it in a pile on the floor). Any pesticide exposure from that sprayed field is short term, and I don't, I admit, sit around worrying, because playing a good sport seems more important to me than staying clean or even pesticide free. But the time on that field is intense, and the contact is intense, and I have yet to figure out why any pesticide in that context is worth the risk. What if the herbicide on a soccer field gives them a single percent increase in their chance of breast cancer, or brain cancer Today, the whole subject of environmental and human toxins leaching from plastics is a fairly new, but rapidly expanding, subject. The first warnings came around 1999, at the time I was choosing phthalate-free teething...

Production of Novel Carbohydrates in Transgenic Plants

From a biotechnological viewpoint, interest in fructans has continued to increase as they have been recognised as beneficial food ingredients. As part of the human diet, they are considered to be prebiotics as they selectively promote the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria. Furthermore, fructans are assumed to have anti-cancer activity, promote mineral absorption, decrease cholesterol levels and decrease insulin levels. Fructans are normally isolated from plants with low agronomic value, such as the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and chicory. Thus, attempts have been made to produce transgenic plants with higher fructan yield or making fructans with specific properties. Transformation of sugar beet with an SST gene from Jerusalem artichoke resulted in the conversion of 90 of the vacuolar sucrose into fructan (Sevenier et al., 1998) since the sugar beet accumulates to concentrations approaching 600 mM sucrose, this represents a massive fructan yield. Weyens et al....

Benefits to Humans of Poisonous Plants and Fungi

In the late 1960s during a mass screening of plants sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, yew bark was found to contain a potent anticancer drug, called taxol. By the 1980s taxol had undergone extensive clinical trials and became the drug of choice for treating ovarian cancer, previously considered incurable, as well as being used for breast cancer and other forms of cancer.

Adhesion Requires Integrins Rac and

Cdc42 Rac Rho Phagocytosis

Downstream of integrins, two specific Rho GTPases, Rac and Rho, cause cell spreading and then adhesion by working in opposition. Rac promotes cell spreading through lamellipodia extension, Rho inhibits lamellipodia extension and promotes cell contractility (Xu et al. 2003). Because of the importance of cell spreading and adhesion to cardiovascular disease and cancer, much of the elucidation of the roles of Rac and Rho has been done in mammalian cells. As Rho GTPases and their downstream components have been found not only in Drosophila, but also in organisms as diverse as protozoans (Arias-Romero et al. 2006 De Melo et al. 2006), yeast (Barale et al. 2006), and Arabidopsis (Gu et al. 2006), it seems likely that these cellular functions are conserved.

Biologic Effects Of Crude A Barbadensis Extracts On Epithelial Tissues

We began our studies by developing standardized Aloe barbadensis gel materials (Aloe Research Foundation Standard Samples) with uniform chemical and biological properties (Pelley etal, 1993 Waller etal, 1994). The ARF Process 'A' materials used in most experiments with unfractionated aloe represent depulped aloe gel fillets produced under conditions of rigorous sanitation not usual to the industry and lyophilized extremely rapidly, within hours of harvest. ARF materials (Processes B, C, D and E) were also produced approximating to the various processes, pasteurization, filtration, absorption with activated charcoal, treatment with cellulase, and concentration by rising falling thin film evaporation, employed in the industry. The ARF Process A material corresponds to no commercial product in current existence and its production is not economically feasible. These ARF materials were produced at several commercial sites by Todd A. Waller and R.P. Pelley, chemically characterized by RPP...

Iodine Deficiency And Breast Disease

Besides being important in thyroid function, iodine is required for the normal growth and development of breast tissue. The high level of iodine intake by Japanese women, noted earlier, has been associated with a low incidence of both benign and cancerous breast disease in this population. Evidence links iodine deficiency with an elevated risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer.25 Antiproliferative iodolactones in the thyroid may be responsible for this effect.26 Although autoimmune antibodies directed against thyroid peroxidase have been associated with a better prognosis in breast cancer,27 thyroid supplementation may increase the risk of breast cancer28 a subject that remains in debate. In vitro studies have found that molecular iodine inhibits induction and proliferation and induces apoptosis in some human breast cancer cell lines, as well as exhibiting antioxidant activity.29 Benign, fibrocystic breast disease is also associated with iodine deficiency. Blocking of iodine...

Medically Important Compounds Derived From Plants

Mitotic Poison

Eastern North American Indians long used the roots and rhizomes (underground stems) of the native May-apple (Podophyllum peltatum, Berberidaceae) as a drastic laxative. By the nineteenth century, white Indian Doctors used extracts of these parts to treat cancerous tumors and skin ulcers, perhaps learned from Indians or by direct observation of its corrosive and irritating nature. The plant's main secondary metabolite is podophyllotoxin, a resin responsible for May-apple's antitumor effects. It is a mitotic poison that inhibits cell division and thus prevents unregulated growth leading to cancerous cells and tumors. However, in clinical trials podophyllotoxin proved too toxic for use as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent, although it remains the drug of choice as a caustic in removing venereal warts and other benign tumors. Attempts to find safer compounds led chemists to manipulate the molecule, and by trial and error they discovered a semisynthetic derivative that proved at...

Non Protein Amino Acids

Canavanine, a structural analogue of arginine is present in many legume crops and affects in particular the immune system, but is also discussed as a chemotherapeutic agent for human pancreas cancer (Lambein et al. 2001). Besides canavanine, mimosine and canaline are tested as anticancer metabolites (Lambein et al. 2001). Other NPAAs, for example glutamine derivates are tested in pharmacology (Brauner-Osborne et al. 1997).

Pomegranate Vascular Remodeling

The pomegranate's medicinal qualities have been known for thousands of years. References in the Bible and Roman mythology mention the tree's unique healing powers, and some Middle Eastern, Asian, and South American people still chew its bark, petals, and peel to treat conditions as diverse as dysentery and diseases of the mouth and gums.1 Modern research has shown that the pomegranate contains polyphenols and anthocyanidins that are powerful free-radical scavengers and are more effective against disease than are those in red wine and green tea.2 It is widely used in traditional medicine to cure inflammation, diabetes, cardiac disease, AIDS, ischemia, and cancer (Figure 6.1). On this basis, the possible anticarcinogenic effects of the pomegranate have been further explored. For example, the application of pomegranate extract to the skin of mice before they were exposed to a carcinogenic agent was shown to inhibit the appearance of erythemas and hyperplasia and the activity of...

Important Poisonous Compounds Found in Plants and Mushrooms

Perhaps the most insidious plant substances are those that are cancer-causing (carcinogenic), because their effects are more long-term and not easily traced. Some fungi, especially certain molds, such as Aspergillus flavus, which grows on improperly stored peanuts, are known to produce tumor-inducing substances Aspergillus produces carcinogens called aflatoxins that can cause liver cancer.

Soil Cd Contamination

Pollution Claude Monet

Treated sewage sludge ( biosolids ) and phosphate fertilizers (He and Singh 1994a, b McLaughlin et al. 2006 Singh and Agrawal 2007 Speir et al. 2003) are important sources of Cd contamination in agricultural soils. The usage of Cd in developed countries has, however, begun to decline because of its toxicity. For instance, Cd is one of the six substances banned by the European Union's Restriction on Hazardous Substances directive, which bans carcinogens in computers (2002 95 EC 2002).

Current research on dietary phytochemicals

The National Cancer Institute recommends eating at least 5-9 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Other reputable sources recommend at least 9 servings for men, 7 servings for women, and 5 servings for children. Research shows that fruits and vegetables are powerful defenders of our health. Research supporting a critical role for fruits and vegetables in good health grows stronger all the time. Scientists now agree that fruits and vegetables should be the foundation of a healthy diet. Phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables can also help reduce your risk of many chronic diseases including cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, stroke and other diseases.

Nutraceuticallaboratory Test Interactions

Support patients with high cholesterol, cancer, HIV, diabetes, allergies, and other conditions Promote bone health treat OA enhance mental functioning increase muscle mass, (illustrates benefits of using trace minerals therapeutically) Support patients with OA and other joint conditions, including TMJ disease maintaining normal immune function for infections, cancer, and allergies a cofactor for several biochemical pathways

Nutritional and Economic Benefits

It can be processed into a number of fermented and non-fermented food products. Research into phytochemicals has shown that soybean contains phytoestrogens, and so may help in managing irregular periods, premenstrual syndrome, menopausal hot flushes and post-menopausal problems such as osteoporosis, fatigue and vaginal dryness (Holt, 1998 Connie, 1999). It may also help guard against cancers, including prostate cancer. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved a health claim stating that 25 g of soy protein in a daily diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol can help reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (FDA, 1999). Various research studies undertaken the world over have indicated that the inclusion of soy foods in the daily diet not only provides good-quality protein, but also helps prevent diseases such as diabetes, breast cancer, osteoporosis, heart attack and memory loss (Holt, 1998 Patricia and Newton, 1998 Messina, 2002 SOPA, 2002). The use of...

Phase 1 Detoxification

In general, phase 1 detoxification arises from the function of a group of some 50-100 enzymes referred to as cytochrome P450. The healthy functioning of this pathway depends upon an individual's nutritional status, genetics, and level of exposure to chemical toxins. Thus, an individual's risks of developing disease states arising from insufficient detoxification varies greatly. Indeed, this can explain the great variability in patients' susceptibility to, and manifestation of, disease processes such as cancer from environmental pollutants, such as smoking.

Immunomodulatory action

Aloe gel may also directly stimulate the immune system (Womble and Helderman, 1988) through its active ingredient acemannan. This polysaccharide increases lymphocyte response to alloantigen it activates macrophages to produce nitric oxide (Karaca etal, 1995) and cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, interferon, tumor necrosis factor) it enhances phagocytosis (Shida etal., 1985) and, it increases the number of circulating monocytes and macrophages. Aloe gel also causes a local activation of complement at the level of C3. Recently Qiu etal. (2000) have developed a process to activate and stabilise aloe polysaccharide. Modified aloe polysaccharide (MAP) prevents ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced immune suppression as determined by contact hypersensitivity response in mice. MAP also inhibits UV irradiation-induced TNF (tumour necrosis factor) release from human epidermoid carcinoma cells. All these results indicate that MAP can be used to reduce the risk of sunlight-related human skin...

Sugars and production of phenolic compounds

Prenoid biosynthetic pathway which is upregulated along fruit maturation (for review, see Cunningham and Gantt 1998). Like polyphenols, carotenoids are antioxidant molecules recommended in human nutrition and may protect against cancer and eye degenerative disease (Jonhson 2002).

Authentification of lavender essential oil

Perillyl alcohol and its effect on cancers regression of various tumours including pancreatic, mammary, and liver tumours (Belanger, 1998). It is also a chemopreventative agent for colon, skin and lung cancer. It is also a chemotherapeutic agent for treating neuroblastoma and prostate and colon cancer. Preliminary trials in human cancers have not been successful as remission has not occurred and there are gastrointestinal and other side effects.

Bioinformatics and a Leadership Role for India

Algorithms for gene expression analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to interpret biological data, which parallels the bioinformatics research that is occurring in developed countries. Recently, there has been interest in developing databases that contain diversified information about biological systems at the species level as well as a network of complex cellular processes such as the Cancer Cell Map (http cellmap ). The database of Quantitative Cellular Signaling is a repository of models of signaling pathways http (http doqcs. ) Conformation Angles Database (CADB), Bangalore (http cluster. cadb ), is another potentially useful database. Various research institutes in India are also involved in the development of databases such as the International Legume database and information services (ILDIS), which is being developed at NBRI (http ).

Gastrointestinal Health Oral Mucositis

Oral ingestion of glutamine is useful for treating mucositis, an inflammatory condition of the mucous membranes that often results from chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Glutamine treatment can reduce the development and severity of mucositis and can shorten the duration of mouth pain in patients undergoing the aforementioned therapies.3 Glutamine supplementation is a highly cost-effective treatment for patients who undergo cancer treatments. In addition to chemotherapy-induced anorexia, painful sores in the oral mucosa can make eating an unpleasant or even intolerable experience for these patients who desperately need good nutrition during the course of therapy. Providing glutamine for such patients, and healing their mucositis, can improve their quality of life at a time when such support is much needed. GI cells are some of the most rapidly dividing cells in the body, and chemotherapy (as aside effect) targets these rapidly dividing cells, thus patients are at an increased risk of...

Conventional alternation of generations

There are two main reasons for the plethora of papers on this fern. One is that it contains toxins and carcinogens (e.g., Siman et al., 1999, 2000 Schmidt et al., 2005), which adds to the problems caused by the other reason, which is that it is a vigorous and invasive weed (see Smith and Taylor, 2000, for review). The it to which I refer is the genus, within which there are now four species generally recognized (see Marrs and Watt, 2006, for review, and Thomson et al., in press) but taxonomic distinctions are not linked to any substantial differences in life cycle processes in this genus. Small differences, however, between taxa may have far-reaching consequences.

Genetic engineering is used to produce renewable resources for industry

Progress is being made in the attempts to use plants for the production of human monoclonal antibodies (e.g., for curing intestinal cancer). Antibodies against bacteria causing caries have been produced in plants, and it is feasible that they could be added to toothpaste. To make such a project economically viable, it would be necessary to produce very large amounts of antibody proteins at low cost. Plants would be suitable for this purpose. There also has been success in using transgenic plants for the production of oral vaccines. The fodder plant lucerne (Medicago sativa) was transformed to produce an oral vaccine against foot and mouth disease. Oral vaccines for hepatitis B virus have been produced in potatoes and lupines, and a vaccine for rabies has been produced in tomatoes. Although these experiments are still at an initial experimental phase, they open up the possibility of vaccination by ingesting plant material (e.g., fodder for animals or fruit...

Preface to the series

Global warming and global travel are among the factors resulting in the spread of such infectious diseases as malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and HIV. All these are not well controlled by the present drug regimes. Antibiotics too are failing because of bacterial resistance. Formerly, less well known tropical diseases are reaching new shores. A whole range of illnesses, for example cancer, occur worldwide. Advances in molecular biology, including methods of in vitro testing for a required medical activity give new opportunities to draw judiciously upon the use and research of traditional herbal remedies from around the world. The re-examining of the herbal medicines must be done in a multi-disciplinary manner. Since 1997, 20 volumes have been published in the Book Series Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Industrial Profiles. The series continues. It is characterized by a single plant genus per volume. With the same Series Editor, this new series Traditional Herbal Medicines for Modern...

Oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose

Oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) are present in soybean and soy products and constitute about 0.5 and 4.0 of the seed, respectively. Although they are considered undesirable due to their flatus-inducing properties, recent studies have indicated that they also have beneficial effects. They have been reported to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon (Tomomatsu, 1994), which provides various health effects. They also inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria (Clostridia perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria) and enhance bulking of the stool, which dilutes the toxins produced by certain Gram-negative bacteria and eliminate them from the intestines. They convert sugars into lactic and acetic acid and thus reduce the colonic pH, which is beneficial for colonic mucosa. Furthermore, they reduce the risk of colon cancer (Pool-Zobel et al., 2002), modulate the immune system (Bland et al., 2004) and contribute to bone health (Nzeusseu et...

Bioaccumulation in Fish and Trophic Transfer

Stewart et al. 147 demonstrated the role of food web structure and physiology of trace element accumulation in the prey species in the differential bioaccumulation of trace elements by fish species this resulted in some species of fish having very high concentrations of Se while others did not in the San Francisco Bay. Two dominant food webs present in the estuary region of the bay were based upon bivalves and crustacean zooplanktons. The dominant bivalve, Potamocorbula amurensis, had a tenfold slower rate of loss of Se from the body compared to that of the crustacean zooplanktons. This resulted in higher tissue Se concentration in the bivalves, which was then reflected in the higher tissue levels of Se in the predatory species of the bivalves. The tissue concentration far exceeded the threshold levels at which Se acted as teratogen and carcinogen, whereas concentration of Se in the predators of the zooplankton was less than the threshold value.

Analysis Of Phytoplankton Samples

Some laboratories will not analyse samples preserved with substances such as formaldehyde, as these are carcinogenic and represent an occupational health and safety hazard. Samples collected from a dense algal bloom can be analysed directly, but they usually need to be concentrated prior to analysis. This is usually done using a 100 mL aliquot of the sample that has already been well mixed by shaking the sample bottle prior to sub-sampling. The aliquot is poured into a 100 mL measuring cylinder and left to stand for a minimum of 24 hours. If small nanoplankton are present, a longer sedimentation time may be necessary. The Lugol's iodine preservative helps the cells sink more rapidly. After the required sedimentation period, most of the phytoplankton cells will have settled to the bottom of the measuring cylinder. The top 90 mL can then be drawn off using a suction pipette, taking care not to disturb the algal cells at the bottom of the cylinder. This gives a 10x...

Other NAcylethanolamine Amidases

As noted, recent experimental evidence has clearly demonstrated that Arabidopsis FAAH encoded by the gene At5g64440 is a bonafide NAE hydrolase (Shrestha et al. 2003, 2006 Wang et al. 2006). The ability of Arabidopsis FAAH knockouts to deplete their endogenous seed NAEs during germination, however, point to the existence of alternative pathways for NAE catabolism in plants (Wang et al. 2006). Although it has yet to be determined whether plants have other enzymes with NAE hydrolytic activity, a FAAH-2 enzyme was recently identified in human cancer cell lines via activity-based protein profiling. The human FAAH-2 protein was shown to share 20 sequence similarity with FAAH-1 and comparison of the enzymatic properties of FAAH-1 and FAAH-2 revealed differences in substrate selectivity. For example, FAAH-1 was more active in hydrolyzing NAE18 1, NAE16 0, and anandamide (NAE20 4) compared to FAAH-2. FAAH-2 also was unable to hydro-lyze other fatty acid amides such as the N-acyl taurines...

Common Nutrient Depletions Caused By Pharmaceuticals

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a common prescription for menopausal women. These estrogen progestin combinations are used to decrease symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, sleep disturbances, and fatigue. In the United States, from 1999 to 2002, approximately 15 million women were on HRT, accounting for 90 million prescriptions per year.2 The Women's Health Initiative study was widely publicized in 2002 this study demonstrated that HRT increases the risk of coronary heart disease, breast cancer, and strokes.3 Following the publication of the study, HRT prescriptions decreased by approximately 32 in 2003.4 Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) also contain estrogen progestin combinations. OCPs have been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular events as well as breast, cervical, and liver cancer.5,6

Supporting Detoxification Within The Body

Using this overview and framework of principal mechanisms of liver detoxification, it is wise to focus on essentials for therapeutic intervention, ensuring that the proper balance between phases 1 and 2 detoxification stages is maintained. It is believed that up to 90 of cancer cases arise from the effects of exposure to environmental chemicals, such as those found in air pollution, tobacco, chemically contaminated food, and antimetabolites that deplete nutrients that are essential for proper detoxifyication.16,17 Therefore, choosing nutrients and botanical medicines to support detoxification can improve quality of life, alleviate acute signs and symptoms of excess toxic load, and confer protection over the course of a patient's life. The next sections cover key botanicals, nutrients, and dietary constituents that represent potential clinical interventions for treating acute or chronic cases of toxicity, depending on each patient's condition. This common herb, used frequently in the...

Prebiotics and Probiotics

The growth and activity of specific species of bacteria in the gut. In animal models, ingestion of lactic acid bacteria was shown to prevent carcinogen-induced pre-neoplastic lesions and tumors.53 Additionally, prebiotic intake in humans has been shown to increase probiotic bacteria, decrease pathogenic bacteria, decrease the activity of pro-carcinogenic enzymes, and increase the amount of beneficial short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs).54 As mentioned previously, increased production of short-chain fatty acids leads to a decrease in the pH of colon content, which is associated with a reduced incidence of colon cancer.55 Using colon-cancer-prone mice, researchers have shown that a diet high in the prebiotic short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides dramatically reduced the incidence of colon tumors in this model.56 The SCFAs have numerous functions in the intestines. SCFAs are readily absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and have been shown to stimulate intestinal mucosal growth. Particularly,...

Conclusion And Future Directions

First, our studies have shown that there are multiple mechanisms operating in UVB-induced suppression of the skin immune system. The wider spectrum of purified, structurally-defined therapeutic ligands we are developing is likely to reveal further complexity of a detailed mechanism. Second, we expect that, together with our collaborators at the University of Georgia, we shall further define the complexity of mechanism of this UVB suppression. This will lead us to the discovery of further novel compounds in the same way as our prior work on the mechanism of aloe led to the discovery of the immune-protective activity of the Tamarind saccharides. Third, our mechanistic studies on the respective roles of CHS, DTH and suppressor cells help us to determine which test best correlates with UVB facilitation of tumor growth. This knowledge will set the stage for selection of the best surrogate for use in future clinical investigations of the efficacy of therapeutic saccharides in humans exposed...

Phytochemicals of Persea americana Mill Avocado

A study from the US in 2005 described the inhibitory effect of avocado on the growth of prostate cancer. Recent studies conducted at the Ohio State University reported that phytochemicals found in the fruit can prevent the onset of cancer and even kill some cancer cells. According to experts, phytochemicals extracted from the fruit strike the multiple signaling pathways and prevent cancer by inducing diseased cell death. The phytochemicals have no reaction on healthy cells. The fruit contains proteins (25 ) vitamin C, vitamin E, unsaturated fatty acids and sesquiterpenes. The fruit contains zero sodium.

Ethnobotany Ethnopharmacology and Mass Bioprospecting

Experiences from the mass bioprospecting efforts undertaken by the United States National Cancer Institute, the National Cooperative Drug Discovery Groups (NCDDG) and the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) programs demonstrate that mass bioprospecting is a complex process, involving expertise from diverse areas of human endeavors, but central to it is the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) that recognizes issues on genetic access, prior informed consent, intellectual property and the sharing of benefits that may arise as a result of the effort. Future mass bioprospecting endeavors must take heed of the lessons learned from past and present experiences in the planning for a successful mass bioprospecting venture.

Naturopathic Musculoskeletal Pain Management

Controlling pain in patients is perhaps one of the physician's greatest challenges. Pain is not a disease, but a symptom of an underlying imbalance. Because pain tends to be the greatest motivator for a person to seek medical care, this symptom often takes precedence over any others. Pain, as discussed in this chapter, refers to that which is derived from the physical realm (to separate it from mental, emotional, and psychologic types of pain). One of the main tenets of naturopathic medicine is find the cause.'' However, this approach is easily overlooked by some physicians who help patients deal with symptoms of pain, regardless of duration. Many conventional pain medicines (many of which are derived from plant substances) offer strong and fast-acting modes of treatment and are quite useful in instances when pain is unbearable for patients (e.g., traumatic injuries, cancer).

Additional Medicinal Mushrooms

Flammulina has been shown to have antimicrobial,69 anti-tumor, and immune-modulating activity.70 Constituents have been shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, and can activate T-cells increasing the production and secretion of INF-gamma.71

Food Drugs and Poisons

The new age of antibiotics was ushered in with Sir Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin in 1929. It was first produced by the blue-green mold Penicillium notatum. Many other antibiotics are produced from Actino-mycetes. On the other hand, aflatoxins produced by species of Aspergillus cause food spoilage and are carcinogenic. Mushrooms also produce toxins that only affect humans when they are eaten. Examples of these are the am-atoxins and phallotoxins produced by a mushroom, Amanita virosa, that are often fatal to humans muscarine and muscimol produced by the fly agaric, Amanita muscaria, are usually not fatal. Hallucinogens such as psilocybin and psilocin are produced by several species of mushrooms including Psilo-cybe cubensis and the protoplasmic poison monomethyhydrozine (MMH) by the false morel Gyromitra esculenta.

Liverworts and Hornworts

Liverworts and hornworts are like mosses in the fundamental features of their life cycle, but differ greatly in organization of their mature game-tophytes and sporophytes. Liverwort gametophytes can be either leafy shoots or flattened thalli. In the leafy forms the leaves are arranged on the stem in one ventral and two lateral rows or ranks, rather than in spirals like the mosses. The leaves are one cell-layer thick throughout, never have a mid-vein, and are usually divided into two or more parts called lobes. The ventral leaves, which actually lie against the substrate (soil or other support), are usually much smaller than the lateral leaves and are hidden by the stem. Anchoring rhizoids, which arise near the ventral leaves, are colorless and unicellular. The flattened ribbonlike to leaflike thallus of the thallose liverworts can be either simple or structurally differentiated into a system of dorsal air chambers and ventral storage tissues. In the latter type the dorsal epidermis of...

Economic Significance

Conifers are also considered the most important gymnospermous group from an economic perspective. Coniferous trees are a very important source of timber for lumber and paper. They are harvested in North America, parts of Europe and Asia, and in Australia. In addition to timber, conifers provide Christmas trees, ornamental trees and shrubs, turpentine, and resin. Pine nuts (or pignoli), the seeds of some pine trees, are used as food. An important cancer-fighting drug, taxol, has been derived from the bark and leaves of the Pacific Coast yew (Taxus). Other gymnosperms also are the source of drugs and herbal medications. The powerful stimulant ephedrine derived from the gnetophyte Ephedra is often used in cold and allergy medications, and compounds shown to improve the mental capacities of the elderly have been discovered in Ginkgo. Ginkgo seeds are also quite nutritious and are used as food in Asia. Ginkgo and cycads are also important as ornamentals. see also Coniferous Forests...

Preface for the ESP series in Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences

It's not the substance, it's the dose which makes something poisonous When Paracelsius, a German physician of the 14th century made this statement he probably did not think about light as one of the most obvious environmental factors. But his statement applies as well to light. While we need light for example for vitamin D production too much light might cause skin cancer. The dose makes the difference. These diverse findings of light effects have attracted the attention of scientists for centuries. The photosciences represent a dynamic multidisciplinary field which includes such diverse subjects as behavioral responses of single cells, cures for certain types of cancer and the protective potential of tanning lotions. It includes photobiology and photochemistry, photomedicine as well as the technology for light production, filtering and measurement. Light is a common theme in all these areas. In recent decades a more molecular centered approach changed both the depth and the quality...

Practical Applications

In boron neutron capture therapy (a method for cancer treatment), 10B-loaded molecules are accumulated in the tumour cells, which they kill thanks to the ionising particles produced by the 10B(n,a)7Li nuclear reaction under neutron irradiation. Using NCR, we have measured 10B contents in the tumour and in the neighbouring healthy cells 63, 87, 89, 104 .

Functional Components

Anti-cancer Anti-oral, head and neck cancer (Meyskens, 2001), skin smoothener (Wallo et al., 2007) Anti-hypertension (Gibbs et al., 2004) Anti-breast cancer (Atkinson and Bingham, 2002), anti-osteoporosis (Song et al., 2008), alleviates menopausal depression Reduces cardiovascular diseases (Zhuo et al., 2004 McVeigh et al., 2006) May help to prevent Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, improves the immune system (Bramley et al., 2000) May help to prevent Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease Reduces cardiovascular diseases et al., 2005) Anti-cancer Reduces total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Matvienko et al., 2002) Inhibits pathogenic bacteria, reduces the risk of colon cancer (Pool-Zobel et al., 2002), stool bulking

Cell biology Nitric oxide early stress signals and cell death

In the human body, damage due to UV-B radiation may involve the p53 tumor-suppressor protein. This represents one of the most effective natural defenses against cancer. Small-molecule drugs have been designed to activate p53 by preventing the binding of negative regulators of p53 for a new and effective genotoxic general treatment for cancer 13 . While plants are considered to lack of p53 homolog, proteins having partial amino acid sequences related to human p53 and to the mitotic inhibitor p21 have been detected in conifer cells cf. Durzan, Santerre, and Havel Rotari et al. (these proceedings). We do not know if proteins and other metabolites produced by plants under UV-B radiation would offer new pharmacogenomic insights in the treatment of malignancies.

A few examples of problem weeds

Bracken creates a profound shading effect, suppressing underlying flora and gradually eliminating grass growth. Bracken also contains various carcinogens and mutagens, and is therefore poisonous to both humans and grazing animals. In addition, bracken may provide a haven for sheep ticks which can transfer numerous sheep and grouse diseases.

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