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Oral Infection and Colonization of the

These include the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Darby et al. 1999 Mahajan-Miklos et al. 1999 Tan et al. 1999a, b), Salmonella typhimurium and other S. enterica serovars (Labrousse et al. 2000) Serratia marcescens (Mallo et al. 2002), Yersinia pestis (Styer et al. 2005) and Burkholderia (O'Quinn et al. 2001 Kothe et al. 2003), the Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (Garsin et al. 2003 Sifri et al. 2002), Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermis (Begun et al. 2005, 2007) and the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans (Mylonakis et al. 2002), and Candida albicans (Breger et al. 2007).

Virulence Factor Mediated Infections

A prominent aspect of C. elegans pathogenicity studies has been the demonstration that many virulence factors required for full pathogenicity in mammalian systems have also been shown to play important roles in the infectious process in the worm. Many mutations in microorganisms that reduce pathogenesis in mammalian systems also result in diminished killing of C. elegans. Conversely, when the worm was used to screen for less virulent pathogen mutants, many such mutants exhibited also reduced virulence in mammalian models of infection (Mylonakis and Aballay 2005 Sifri et al. 2005). This has been shown in P. aeruginosa, B. pseudomallei, S.enterica, S. marcescens, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumoniae and C. neoformans (Alegado and Tan 2008 Garsin et al. 2001 Joshua et al. 2003 Kurz et al. 2003 Mylonakis et al. 2002 Sifri et al. 2002 Tan et al. 1999a, b Tenor et al. 2004). Overall, several of the virulence-related genes that are required for mammalian pathogenesis...

Toxic Metal Ions And Mechanisms Of Resistance 1161 Mercury

Use of lead and its toxicity has been well known for a long time 55,56 . It is no transition element, but belongs to the element group IVa, C-Si-Ge-Sn-Pb. In seawater, it is even more rare than mercury 10 . Due to its low solubility, especially, lead phosphate is insoluble with a solubility product of 10-54 its biologically available concentration is low. Molecular information on lead uptake is not available but Pb-tolerant bacteria have been isolated 57 , and a process involving precipitation in intracellular lead phosphate granules in Staphylococcus has been reported 58,59 .

Biological Properties

The antimicrobial properties of various species of Artemisia are well recorded (Mehrotra et al., 1993) where a number of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were inhibited in their growth. The test bacteria are all capable of infection, and include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecalis. In a similar study of A. dracunculus oil, Deans and Svoboda (1988) included the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium sporogenes as well as Salmonella pullorum and Yersinia enterocolitica, the latter organism having the ability to produce an enterotoxin under conditions of refrigeration. A larger group of bacteria was tested against a number of Italian species, including A. dracunculus, and found to be very active at preventing the growth of human pathogens, food spoilage poisoning types as well as animal pathogens (Piccaglia et al., 1993).

Aspects of Dag Pa and the Regulation of DGK Activity

Bacterial DGKB (e.g., of Staphylococcus aureus) lacks C1 domains, similar to Arabidopsis DGK3-7, and requires dimerization for activity (Jerga et al. 2009). Even though the amino acids responsible for dimerization in bacteria are lacking, similar interactions of Arabidopsis proteins cannot be excluded.

Proteins Opsonize Invading Bacteria and Fungi to Promote Phagocytosis

Several proteins have been discovered in Drosophila which share sequence similarities with the mammalian complement C3 a2-macroglobulin super-family of proteins, and are predicted to be secreted into hemolymph (Lagueux et al. 2000). These proteins, named thiolester proteins (TEPs), share a predicted signal peptide and a unique C-terminal region featuring six cysteine residues in conserved positions. These predicted proteins all contain a highly variable central region, indicating the potential for great diversity and specificity of activity. TEP II, for example, has five different splice forms. A microarray study of genes up-regulated upon infection in adult flies detected CG4823, a fly homolog of the complement-binding protein a2-macroglobulin (De Gregorio et al. 2001). This gene may encode a protein that binds to opsonized microbes to trigger phagocytosis. In the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, aTEP-I has been shown to opsonize and promote the phagocytosis of Escherichia coli and other...

Antimicrobial Peptides from Urochordates

Much of the work on antimicrobial peptides from the Urochordata has been performed on hemocytes of ascidians of the family Styelidae (for a review, see Tincu and Taylor 2004). Briefly, from the hemocytes of Styela clava, the clavanins (a family of four-helical, amphipathic, histidine-rich antimicrobial peptides that contain 23 amino acids and exhibit C-terminal amidation) were purified (Lee et al., 1997a, b Menzel et al. 2002). Clavanins A to D resemble the magainins, well characterized antimicrobial peptides from the skin of Xenopus laevis. Synthetic clavanin A displays antimicrobial activity comparable with that of magainins and cecropins (Lee et al. 1997a, b). In addition to Escherichia coli, Listeria monocy-togenes, and Candida albicans, clavanins are broadly effective against gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (Menzel et al. 2002). Plicatamide is a potently antimicrobial octapeptide from the blood cells of Styela plicata (Tincu et al. 2000, 2003). Wild-type...

Measurement of Microbiocidal Activity

Although the methods above can determine Minimum Lethal Concentrations of agents they involve prolonged contact (generally 24-48 hours) between the agent and the test organism and give no evidence of the rate of kill. Because antiseptics and disinfectants are generally required to reduce the microbial load rapidly, kill rate or suspension tests are more relevant to their intended use. In principle, such tests involve the addition of an appropriate volume of inoculum to a clinically relevant concentration of the agent followed by the testing of the viability of the culture after set periods of incubation. This basic procedure can be adapted by changing variables such as inoculum density, concentration of the test agent, contact time and presence of potential inactivators, to satisfy the testing requirements. In a study of the death kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger treated with samples of thyme oil, it was reported that variations

Lavender oil and its supposed functions

'Lavandula angustifolia has a yang quality and its ruling planet is Mercury (Tisserand, 1985).' That author lists its properties as 'analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, antiseptic, antispas-modic, antitoxic, carminative, cholagogue, choleretic, cicatrisant, cordial, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, emmanogogue, hypotensive, nervine, sedative, splenic, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge and vulnerary'. Its uses are for 'abcess, acne, alopecia areata, asthma, blenorrhoea, blepharitis, boils, bronchitis, carbuncles, catarrh, chlorosis, colic, conjunctivitis, convulsions, cystitis, depression, dermatitis, diarrhoea, diphtheria, dyspepsia, earache, eczema, epilepsy, fainting, fistula, flatulence, gonorrhoea, halitosis, headache, hypertension, hysteria, influenza, insomnia, laryngitis, leucorrhoea, migraine, nausea, nervous tension, neurasthenia, oliguria, palpitations, paralysis, pediculosis, psoriasis, rheumatism, scabies, scrofula, gall stones, sunstroke, throat infections,...

Antispasmodic Action of Chamomile Oil aBisabolol Oxides A and B on Musculotropic Spasms of Isolated Guinea Pig Ileum

Although alcoholic chamomile preparations were used for a long time because of their antibacterial and antimycotic activity, microbiological tests of chamomile preparations of the essential oil and of individual substances were undertaken comparatively late 2, 21, 32, 99, 100, 105-109, 129 . In 1972, the first report on bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of the essential oil was published 2 . Both Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were

Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations

Parmelia physodes (L.) Ach. was reported to be an antibiotic. Usnic acid is a wide-spectrum antibiotic characterized from lichens. Vulpinic acid has mild antibiotic property. Atranorin has been found to be much less biologically active than usnic and vulpinic acids. Usnic , evernic and vulpinic acids inhibited the growth of gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus megaterium, but the acids had no effect on the gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. extracts of the lichen Cetraria aculeata (Schreber) Fr. and its active constituent protolichesterinic acid were tested positive against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Listeria monocytogenes. Alectosarmentin, (-)-usnic acid, physodic acid and 8'-O-ethyl-beta-alectoronic acid isolated from the alcoholic extract of the lichen Alectoria...

Properties And Indications Of Ge Gen In Traditional Chinese Medicine

The primary indications of Ge Gen Tang are various acute infectious diseases including respiratory infection, enteritis and dysentery, and suppurative skin infections such as carbuncles and sores. In Japan, Ge Gen Tang is one of the most commonly used formulas for cold and flu. According to a Japanese survey comparing effects of various cold formulas, Ge Gen Tang is the most effective. Subjective symptom improvement, clinical efficacy and safety in cold patients reached 93 per cent, 90 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively. It is particularly effective in children (Deng, 1990).

TLRs as Primary Sensors of Pathogenic PAMPS and Endogenous Danger Molecules

However, di- and triacylated lipopeptides were recently reported to mediate TLR2-dependent responses in TLR1- and in TLR6-deficient mice (Buwitt-Beckmann et al. 2006). These data indicate that lipopeptides with distinct acylation patterns can be recognized by TLR2 in a TLR1- and TLR6-independent manner. Further studies will be needed to address the question of whether a tri- or diacylation patterns confer specificity upon a lipopeptide for TLR1- or TLR6-dependency, respectively, or if an additional, compensatory recognition system exists. Other molecules, e.g., CD36 and Dectin-1, also contribute to TLR2-mediated signal transduction. CD36 has been characterized as a selective and non-redundant sensor of microbial diacylglycerides that signal via the TLR2 6 heterodimer (e.g., MALP-2, LTA Hoebe et al. 2005). Indeed, CD36 KO- mice exhibit defective clearance of Staphylococcus aureus in vivo, develop profound bacteremia, and CD36- - macrophages fail to internalize S. aureus and...

Application of Genome Scale Models

Becker S, Palsson B (2005) Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Staphylococcus aureus N315 an initial draft to the two-dimensional annotation. BMC Microbiology 5 8. 32. Heinemann M, K mmel A, Ruinatscha R, Panke S (2005) In silico genome-scale reconstruction and validation of the Staphylococcus aureus metabolic network. Biotechnol Bioeng 92 850-864.

Antimicrobial Activity of Tea Tree

Both tea tree oil and formulations containing tea tree oil at concentrations of 5 have been reported to pass the Therapeutic Goods Act (TGA) test for antiseptics and disinfectants (Graham 1978), which includes type strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as test organisms (Altman 1989). The oil has also been reported to pass both USP and BP preservative efficiency tests in semi-solid formulations at concentrations of approximately 0.5-1 (Altman 1991), although higher concentrations may be needed to satisfy the requirements of the test in relation to Aspergillus niger (this volume, Chapter The very broad spectrum of activity of tea tree oil, a highly desirable characteristic in an antiseptic or disinfectant, has been confirmed by a number of studies published during the last decade. Table 2 identifies the organisms which have been tested by various authors and presents MIC values...

Phytochemicals and bacterial resistance

Hyperforin, the acylpholoroglucinol from Hypericum perforatum, has been reported to have antibiotic properties. However it has very low minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin resistant variants. Sinaicione from Hypericum sinaicum and chinensin from Hypericum chinense are other plant derived antibacterial.

Combretaceae

Sections of duodenum or uterus of rats (Bhargava et al., 1968 Bhargava and Westfall, 1969). Chopra et al., (1938) reported a cardiotonic action in a number of Indian Terminalia spp. including T. avicennoides. In Nigeria the aqueous extract of the stembark and roots of this species proved to have the strongest antibiotic action of the different Terminalia spp., mainly on Gram-positive organisms (Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium phlei) (Malcolm and Sofowora, 1969).

Ebenaceae

P In doses of 0.2 g kg a rootbark extract of D. mespUiformis produces hypertension and exaggerated respiration in dogs. The rootbark of all the species here noted and of D. tricolor (Schum. & Thonn.) Hiern has an antibacterial action on staphylococci, streptococci and diphtheria bacilli probably due to plumbagin. Besides the antibiotic action, insecticide and anthelmintic properties have also been reported in the various species of Diospyros (Paris and Moyse-Mignon, 1949a). As the naphthoquinones also have a vitamin K action, their local application in wound dressing seems fully justified (Fieser etal., 1941).

Cobalt

Been found to transport cobalt, like a protein in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus 184 and COT1p protein from S. cerevisiae that transports cobalt across a mitochondrial membrane 186,187 . Excess Co2+ is generally pumped from Gram-negative bacteria in conjunction with nickel or zinc by a three-polypeptide membrane complex that is not an ATPase but functions as a divalent cation 2 H+ antiporter 76,173,263 . A bacterium containing a nitrile hydratase, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, was reported to possess a system related to the nickel transporter HoxN from R. eutropha 250,251 , thus implying that HoxN homolog might play a role to supply Co2+ for the production of this non-B12-cobalt protein 11 . Thus, Co2+ is detoxified by RND-driven systems in Gram-negative bacteria and by CDF transporters in eukaryotes and Gram-positive bacteria.

Euphorbiaceae

L The viscid sap is used to cure sores on the tongues of babies (Pthrush) (Irvine, 1961) and in India the leaves of J. gossypiifolia are applied to boils and carbuncles, eczema and rashes (Chopra et al., 1956). The rootbark of J. curcas, dried and pulverized, is applied as a dressing for sores (Irvine, 1930). The seeds are a (dangerous) purgative and are given as a remedy against venereal diseases (Dalziel, 1937).

Effects

The isolated essential oil of Carum carvi is administered orally as a component of mixed drugs. Pure is recommended for external use. It exhibits antifungal activity (Guerin and Reveillere 1985), kills dermal parasites and shows good inhibitory properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae (Syed et al. 1987) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mishenkova et al. 1985).

Lysozyme

Although lysozyme is mainly directed against Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus Kern et al. 1951) it is also active against Gram-negative bacteria, e.g. Echerichia coli (Ellison and Giehl 1991) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Cole et al. 2002), suggesting that it might contribute to control the growth of bacteria in healthy skin. However, the significance of lysozyme in the cutaneous defense system is still unclear because lysozyme was shown to be expressed exclusively in the cytoplasm and could not be identified within the stratum corneum (Ogawa et al. 1971) or in skin-derived washing fluids (Gl ser et al. 2005).

Shiitake

Shiitake mushrooms have also demonstrated antibacterial activity. One study showed that a 5 concentration of shiitake juice extract produced a pronounced antimicrobial effect with respect to the pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis, while the beneficial colonic bacteria Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus exhibited resistance to the action of shiitake juice.59

Gentianaceae

P Nickel (1959) had reported the antibacterial action of guava leaves on Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In 1969, Malcolm and Sofowora confirmed the antibacterial action on Gram-positive organisms (Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus) and also noted action on Mycobacterium phlei by Nigerian plants. The flavone derivatives isolated by Khadem and Mohammed (1958) were reported to inhibit the growth of Staph, aureus in a dilution of 1 10000. P The MIC values of these flavonoids and certain of their derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Mycobacterium smegmatis compare favourably with those of streptomycin sulphate. No activity was observed against Escherichia coli and the fungi Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The dihydrochalcones were slightly more active than the flavanones. A number of the C-benzylated flavonoids are also cytotoxic. A larvicidal compound in this Annonaceae was also found to be a benzylflavanone (Towers and Wat,...

Who Flos Chamomillae

Both camomile extract and (-)-a-bisabolol demonstrated antipeptic activity in vitro 68, 98, 104 . A hydroalcoholic extract of camomile inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, group B Streptococcus, and Streptococcus salivarius, and it had a bactericidal effect in vitro on Bacillus megatherium and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae 38 . In vitro, the volatile oil of camomile also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis 19 . In vitro, camomile extracts inhibited both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase 110 , and thus the production of pros-taglandins and leukotrienes, known inducers of inflammation. Both bisabolol and bisabolol oxide have been shown to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase, but bisabolol was the more active of the two compounds 21 . Numerous in vivo studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug. The anti-inflammatory effects of camomile extract, the essential oil, and the isolated constituents have been evaluated in...

Meliaceae

P Paris and Moyse-Mignon (1939) noticed that the water extract of the leaves stupefied goldfish and concentrations of 3 g 1 killed them. Gaudin and Vacherat (1938) also noticed the ichthyotoxic effect of the macerated leaves. The stembark gave positive results for Staphylococcus aureus and Sarcina lutea in short antimicrobial tests on a series of Nigerian plants on Gram-positive organisms (Malcolm and Sofowora, 1969). The aglycone of tropaeolin, a benzylisothiocyanate found in the seeds of C. papaya, has been studied for its antibiotic and pharmacological activity and for its toxicity. Maximum antibiotic action has been achieved with freshly crushed seeds and the average concentration of 6 mg g of seeds has proved sufficient for therapeutic purposes. An antifungal effect has been found useful in the treatment of fungal skin diseases and benzylisothiocyanate may be a useful bactericidal agent for intestinal and urinary infections, being active against a wide range of microorganisms and...

Rutaceae

P The antimicrobial effect of the buffered extracts of all these chewing sticks on the oral flora has been tested by the streak-plate method and it has been shown that all are to some extent active, whilst the controls showed a heavy increase in microorganisms although to differing degrees. The action against more than 20 organisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as Candida spp. and protozoa (Entamoebia gingivalis) was examined. Canthine-6-one (also isolated from Zanthoxylum elephantiasis) has been shown to be consistently active against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Candida albicans (Mitscher et al., 1972a, b). The rootbark also contains fagarol, which has been found to be identical with sesamine from Sesamum indicum (Karrer, 1958). The root of Z. zanthoxyloides, in addition to giving the biggest zone of inhibition of all the P The untreated leaves of the plant have proved significantly superior to vaseline gauze...