Breast Cancer Survivors

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor

Undergoing chemotherapy can be one of the most terrifying things that you go through in your life. One of the most frightening things about chemotherapy is the lack of real information that most people have about it, and the unknown makes it so much more frightening as a result. This eBook, written by a young cancer survivor gives you the real story about what chemo is all about. The most valuable information you can get about chemotherapy is from someone that has already experienced it. This PDF eBook allows you to download and read it as soon as your order it. You can begin your journey of reassurance as soon as you want! Because that's what this is about: chemo does not have to be a terrifying unknown! Other people have gone through it before, and want to help you through it as well! This eBook is the guide through chemo that many people wish they could have had, and now you can have it yourself! More here...

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor Summary

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Author: Nalie Augustin
Official Website: www.nalie.ca
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My Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor Review

Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

Purchasing this book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Androgens And Breast Cancer

Clear independent risk factors that must be measured and controlled directly and intentionally. Postmenopausal women, for instance, can have increased risks for developing breast cancer, not only from having elevated estrogen but also from high levels of testosterone being converted to estrogen, low levels of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and the consequential higher levels of free steroid sex hormones.2 Numerous other risk factors are also linked to this enhanced risk, including elevated adrenal secretions and chronic hyperinsulinemia. A woman with elevated androgen levels is at a higher risk for developing breast cancer and other hormone-dependent diseases. Specific correlations with deleterious androgenic effects have been associated with increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate,3 androstenedione,4 and testosterone concentrations. However, the correlation of DHEA and breast cancer has not been substantiated in other research, and it appears that...

Processing and utilization

Isoflavones also can be extracted from lactoserum waste water. Soybean isoflavone consists of flavone glycoside (97-98 ) and aglycones (2-3 ). Agly-cones have biological activity. Isoflavone glycoside is separated from agly-cones by the actions of different isoflavone-glucosidases, and the genistein with biological activity is then released. Genistein can attenuate postmeno-pausal osteoporosis in humans. Isoflavones have inhibitory effects on the early transformation and proliferation of cancer cells. They can effectively inhibit the angiogenesis of a cancer structure and thus block the supply of nutrients to cancer cells. Therefore, isoflavone is of therapeutic use in breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, leukaemia and others.

Female Hormonal Health So Much More Than Pms Or Menopause

Even in the new millennium, with all the technology and broad dissemination and free flow of information, many busy clinicians are still performing the same diagnostic hormonal workups that have been conducted for decades. Frequently, a few specific data points are targeted, such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) or estradiol and progesterone. Yet, primary care practitioners have all been trained to realize that hormonal pathways are dependent upon homeostasis of other pathways to promote and sustain optimal health.1 Thus, it makes sense that examining the bigger hormonal picture, the lay of the land,'' so to speak, yields facts needed to maximize clinical outcomes. The common practice of examining select and narrow hormonal indices is akin to looking at a few trees within a forest and making ajudgment on the ecology of the entire forest. Until recently, affordable testing that provided a truly comprehensive look at a patient's hormonal profile was not...

Sphingolipid signaling in plants

A role for Cer in mediating the effects of AAL-toxin exposure was suggested by the partial rescue of AAL-toxin-treated tomato leaves by exogenous ceramide application (Brandwagt et al., 2000). While this does not seem consistent with the proposed role for LCBs (or LCBPs) described above, it was suggested that the relative levels (or ratio) of LCB and Cer may constitute a switch, triggering PCD (Spassieva et al., 2002). Such a rheostat model has been proposed to operate in animal cells for LCBP and Cer (Spiegel and Milstien, 2003 Taha et al, 2006). While this merits testing in plants as well, it should include an assessment of the contribution of LCBPs to the rheostat. As well, testing of the rheostat hypothesis should also take into account the levels of specific species of LCB, LCBP, and Cer, in light of recent studies indicating that accumulation of C24 ceramide species induces cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 breast cancer cells while C16 ceramide accumulation is associated with...

Possible Causes of Skin Problems

Glutathione is a potent antioxidant and its enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, is important in proper skin health and prevention of DNA damage in cells. Studies have shown that mice treated with esterified glutathione prior to ultraviolet-B exposure had increased cutaneous glutathione levels and decreased numbers of sunburned cells.47 In a small study, a combination product of reduced glutathione and anthocyanins was shown to decrease radiation-induced dermatitis in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer, allowing for more consistent treatment.48

Common Nutrient Depletions Caused By Pharmaceuticals

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a common prescription for menopausal women. These estrogen progestin combinations are used to decrease symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, sleep disturbances, and fatigue. In the United States, from 1999 to 2002, approximately 15 million women were on HRT, accounting for 90 million prescriptions per year.2 The Women's Health Initiative study was widely publicized in 2002 this study demonstrated that HRT increases the risk of coronary heart disease, breast cancer, and strokes.3 Following the publication of the study, HRT prescriptions decreased by approximately 32 in 2003.4 Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) also contain estrogen progestin combinations. OCPs have been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular events as well as breast, cervical, and liver cancer.5,6

Hypericin and hyperforin

Hyperforin Perforatum

Recently it has been reported that H. perforatum can reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy drug known as irinotecan. The study was based on previous findings that H. perforatum can stimulate cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4), an enzyme system involved in drug metabolism. Specifically, researchers took the premise that hypericin and hyperforin-components of H. perforatum seem to enhance CYP3A4 activity and the fact that irinotecan is also partly metabolized by the enzyme system (see Fig. 6.20).

Fatty Acid Desaturases

A number of studies have demonstrated apparently beneficial effects of diets based on high MUFA content primarily derived from olive oil (Kris-Etherton et al., 1988 Spiller et al., 1992 Hegsted et al., 1993 Curb et al., 2000). The health implications of palmitoleic acid were first addressed by Yamori et al. (1986) and Abraham et al. (1989). Curb et al. (2000) compared the effects of (i) a typical American diet high in saturated fat - 37 energy from fat, (ii) the American Heart Association 'step 1' diet - 30 energy from fat (half the saturated fatty acids, normal amounts of MUFAs and PUFAs, and high levels of carbohydrates), and (iii) a macadamia nut-based mono-unsaturated fat diet (37 energy from fat). When compared with the typical diet, the 'step 1' and macadamia nut diets both had potentially beneficial effects on cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. These results are consistent with previously reported lipid-altering benefits of MUFA-rich diets, particularly those involving...

Sexhormone Binding Globulin

Levels of sex-hormone binding globulin, as previously mentioned, play a role in numerous conditions. Low levels are associated with hormone-related conditions such as breast cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, and insulin resistance. Furthermore, decreased levels of this protein are associated with cardiovascular risk factors as well. A recent study showed that low SHBG is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, increased triglycerides, and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in men and women. In women, decreased SHBG was also associated with elevated apolipoprotein B and diabetes.10 SHBG has also been shown to inhibit the estradiol-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells.11 DIET, LIFESTYLE, HORMONES, AND BREAST CANCER Chronic hyperinsulinemia is intimately linked to diet, lifestyle, and the development of a hormonal profile that correlates with increased breast cancer and hormone-related disease risk. What is noteworthy is the ability of insulin to inhibit hepatic...

Plastic Grass The Artificial Weed

Young athletes perhaps don't spend as many hours per day on the athletic field as they do on their home lawns. My daughters, after a game, generally put their shoes away (okay, they leave them on the floor of the car) and take off the uniform shortly afterward (and leave it in a pile on the floor). Any pesticide exposure from that sprayed field is short term, and I don't, I admit, sit around worrying, because playing a good sport seems more important to me than staying clean or even pesticide free. But the time on that field is intense, and the contact is intense, and I have yet to figure out why any pesticide in that context is worth the risk. What if the herbicide on a soccer field gives them a single percent increase in their chance of breast cancer, or brain cancer

Benefits to Humans of Poisonous Plants and Fungi

In the late 1960s during a mass screening of plants sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, yew bark was found to contain a potent anticancer drug, called taxol. By the 1980s taxol had undergone extensive clinical trials and became the drug of choice for treating ovarian cancer, previously considered incurable, as well as being used for breast cancer and other forms of cancer.

Iodine Deficiency And Breast Disease

Effect.26 Although autoimmune antibodies directed against thyroid peroxidase have been associated with a better prognosis in breast cancer,27 thyroid supplementation may increase the risk of breast cancer28 a subject that remains in debate. In vitro studies have found that molecular iodine inhibits induction and proliferation and induces apoptosis in some human breast cancer cell lines, as well as exhibiting antioxidant activity.29 Benign, fibrocystic breast disease is also associated with iodine deficiency. Blocking of iodine with perchlorate in the mammary tissue of rats has been found to cause histologic changes indicative of fibrocystic breast disease, as well as precancerous lesions.30 Conversely, iodine supplementation has been shown to ease mastalgia. Supplementation with 3 or 6 mg per day of molecular iodine significantly decreased pain reported by patients, as well as physicians' assessments of pain, tenderness, and nodularity in benign breast disease, with a dose of 6 mg per...

Nutritional and Economic Benefits

The US Food and Drug Administration has approved a health claim stating that 25 g of soy protein in a daily diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol can help reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (FDA, 1999). Various research studies undertaken the world over have indicated that the inclusion of soy foods in the daily diet not only provides good-quality protein, but also helps prevent diseases such as diabetes, breast cancer, osteoporosis, heart attack and memory loss (Holt, 1998 Patricia and Newton, 1998 Messina, 2002 SOPA, 2002). The use of whole-bean-based food provides all of the nutritional benefits that soybean offers and, when included in a diet with cereals, the food provides an excellent source of nutrition.

Gastrointestinal Health Oral Mucositis

Oral ingestion of glutamine is useful for treating mucositis, an inflammatory condition of the mucous membranes that often results from chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Glutamine treatment can reduce the development and severity of mucositis and can shorten the duration of mouth pain in patients undergoing the aforementioned therapies.3 Glutamine supplementation is a highly cost-effective treatment for patients who undergo cancer treatments. In addition to chemotherapy-induced anorexia, painful sores in the oral mucosa can make eating an unpleasant or even intolerable experience for these patients who desperately need good nutrition during the course of therapy. Providing glutamine for such patients, and healing their mucositis, can improve their quality of life at a time when such support is much needed. GI cells are some of the most rapidly dividing cells in the body, and chemotherapy (as aside effect) targets these rapidly dividing cells, thus patients are at an increased risk of...

Pharmacological investigations

Anti-nausea activity In a rat model, anti-emetic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of H. integrifolia on cisplatin-induced nausea was investigated. Rats react to emetic nausea-producing stimuli, such as cisplatin, with altered feeding habits, manifested by pica or increased consumption of kaolin. The authors measured pica in rats to quantify cisplatin-induced nausea, and to evaluate the anti nausea effect of pretreatment with ethanolic extract of H. integrifolia, which was given orally. Cisplatin at 3 mg kg (i.p) induced significant pica accompanied by reduced food intake, suggesting the presence of nausea. Hence, this cisplatin dose was selected for testing the anti nausea activity of H. integrifolia. Cisplatin-induced pica decreased significantly when animals were pretreated with H. integrifolia at doses of 250 mg kg p.o and 500 mg kg p.o (P< 0.01). H. integrifolia pretreatment decreased cisplatin induced kaolin intake in the rat model of simulated nausea. The findings...

Functional foods

Because of increased health awareness in the public, there is a tremendous demand for functional foods that contain enhanced levels of phytochemicals that are beneficial for human health. In soybean, such phytochemicals are isoflavones, fatty acids, amino acids, phytic acids, phytoestrogens, gluco-sides and saponin glycosides. Isoflavones have been reported to have several health benefits such as in breast cancer, prostate cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Menon et al., 1998 Ji et al., 1999). There are three major groups of isoflavones in soybean - genistein, daidzein and glycitein - that have positive health effects. It has been reported that there is a genetic variation for this important phytochemical in soybean (Ding et al., 1995), and breeding objectives aim to increase the concentration of desirable isoflavones. To this end, the molecular breeding approach has also been applied by mapping the QTL associated with isoflavones and eventually adopting MAS (Primomo et al., 2005,...

Chalcone glycosides

Chalcone (Fig. 5.160) is derived from a combination of one molecule of cinnamic acid and three molecules of acetate or malonate. Liquitrin (Fig. 5.161) and isoliquitrin (Fig. 5.162) are common examples. The core structure of the chalcones, chalcone, exhibits a significant chemopreventive action against two human breast cancer lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.

Curcumin

Research at the University of Texas has demonstrated that curcumin blocks the activity of a hormone having a link with the development of colorectal cancer. Other studies have demonstrated that curcumin inhibits melanoma cell growth and destroys cancer cells. In addition, animal research conducted at the University of Texas reported that curcumin prevented the spread of breast cancer cells to lungs.

Conclusions

The biological activity and physiological effects of pomegranate polyphenols have to be consistent with their bioavailability and metabolism. Thus conclusions drawn from in vitro studies using cell lines that are not in direct contact with pomegranate juice polyphenols under physiological conditions should be taken with caution. This is the case of studies testing activity of punicalagin on liver or breast cancer cell lines. In these tissues, the activity of the metabolites that actually circulate in plasma (urolithins and glucuronic acid conjugates), and at the concentrations reached in plasma (mean values about 1 to 5 pM) and the tissues (detectable but generally below the quantification limit), should be evaluated. The original ellagitannins (punicalagin)

Conclusion

In the past decades, major stride was made in women's health by launching SERM, e.g. tamoxifen and raloxifene (Jordan, 1998). Their promising results on the chemopre-vention of breast cancer in clinical studies shed light on the development of new SERM in pharmaceutical industry. Isoflavones have become prominent agents for estrogen-dependent diseases because they can protect women from osteoporosis and exhibit anti-estrogenic properties in the breast, uterus and prostate tissue to prevent cancer formation. They are natural compounds derived from edible plants that have been consumed by Asians, South Americans, and vegetarians for long periods apparently without any undesirable side effects (Olsen and Love, 1997). Clinical and experimental evaluation of those isoflavones could led to the discovery of more efficacious agents with better phar-macokinetic properties. Further, balanced diets containing proper isoflavone contents could be recommended for pre- and post-menopausal women and...

Cannabis

Late in the twentieth century in the United States, the legal use of marijuana has been promoted because of its potential for treating several medical conditions, including glaucoma (high fluid pressure within the eye), spasticity, and nausea during chemotherapy. Several states, most notably California, have passed compassionate use laws that allow patients to legally obtain marijuana for smoking. At the same time, several states are moving forward with legislation to allow fiber hemp to be grown legally, though these efforts will require the cooperation of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Currently, hemp fiber for use in the United States is imported from Canada, China, and several other countries where it is grown legally. see also Cultivar Defenses, Chemical Fiber and Fiber Products Psychoactive Plants.

Immune Function

A potent immune system modulator, arginine is useful for treating suboptimal immune responses and can reduce the occurrence of postsurgical infections. Supplemental arginine can decrease the amount of cell-adhesion molecules (useful for preventing viral and bacterial entry) and lowers pro-inflammatory cytokines arginine's effects on these molecules are thought to alter the balance of cytokines positively. In one study, arginine (30 g per day, for three days) up-regulated natural-killer cell activity, lymphocyte reactivity, and lymphokine activation of natural-killer cells in patients with breast cancer.42 Conversely, arginine may promote tumor growth by providing a source of nitrogen.43

Coriolus

Numerous studies have been conducted on coriolus' immune-enhancing properties. These studies have identified the mushroom's active constituents. Among them are the beta-glucan polysaccharides. Coriolus contains several different types 1-3 beta-glucan, 1-4 beta-glucan, and 1-6 beta-glucan, protein-bound PSK, and polysaccharide peptide (PSP).42 The target of numerous research investigations, PSK and PSP have anti-tumor effects and are used widely as biologic response modifiers in cancer chemotherapy regimens in Japan.43,44 In fact, PSP has been used throughout Asia as an adjunctive cancer treatment for the last 30 years. PSK has shown benefit in gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast, and lung cancer therapies.45

Glucosinolates

Secondary metabolites are often synthesised during maturation of crops. With a better degree of maturity, a higher concentration is expected in foods grown in organic farming systems (Molgaard, 2000, Brandt et al. 2001). Broccoli is rich in sulphoraphane which, in animal feeding experimentation has shown a protective effect against chemically induced breast cancer (Zhang et al. 1994). Adam (2002) found sulphoraphane contents in broccoli that were two to six-fold higher in market products that were organically grown.

Agaricus

Extracts of beta-glucan from Agaricus blazei murill has show potent anti-cancer activity. One study showed that this extract was cytotoxic to human ovarian cancer cells, suppressed cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased metastasis in mouse models.48 The constituent ergosterol, a vitamin D precursor, has been shown to inhibit tumor growth through the inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization. An additional constituent, sodium pyroglutamate, has shown similar activity as an antiangiogenic substance with potent antitumor and antimetastatic actions, as well as immune-modulatory activity, as shown in tumor-bearing mice.49 In a human study with 100 gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, an extract of Agaricus was shown to increase NK cell activity, as well as improve chemotherapy-associated side effects such as alopecia, appetite, emotional stability, and general weakness.50 In addition to increasing NK cell activity, Agaricus extracts also enhanced the...

Nutritional value

Soy isoflavones, genistein, daidzein, and to a limited extent glycitein and their -glycosides, have been reported to have an anti-carcinogenic effect on breast cancer in premenopausal women (Messina, 2004) and androgen-sensitive and -insensitive prostate cancer in men (Kucuk, 2004 Zhou, 2004).

Strand Invasion

Several proteins also cooperate with Dmcl Rad5l in strand invasion. Homologues of BRCA2, Mndl and AHP2 were identified recently as key players in meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis (Schommer et al. 2003 Siaud et al. 2004 Kerzendorfer et al. 2006). Despite its absence in yeast, the BRCA2 protein appears to be conserved amongst eukaryotes, including Arabidopsis. In humans, mutations of the BRAC2 gene are associated with susceptibility to breast cancer. BRCA2 facilitates the loading of Rad5l on single-stranded DNA. Arabidopsis has two closely related BRCA2 homologues. In Arabidopsis, the silencing of the two AtBRCA2 genes by RNA interference (RNAi) leads to a sterile phenotype and chromosome fragmentation. The chromosome fragmentations observed in AtBRCA2-RNAi plants depend on AtSpoll-l (Siaud et al. 2004). These results indicate that AtBRCA2 acts downstream of AtSpoll-l during meiosis. In addition, AtBRCA2 interacts with both AtDmcl and AtRad5l in yeast two-hybrid assays (Siaud et al....

The Zip Family

The ZIP family has been divided into four sub-groups based on amino acid sequence similarity Subfamily I, Subfamily II, LIV-1, and gufA (gene of unknown function) (Gaither and Eide, 2001 Taylor et al., 2003). The LIV-1 subfamily is named after its founder member, an estrogen-regulated gene involved in the formation of breast cancer. This sub-family has been recently re-named LZT, for LIV-1 subfamily of ZIP zinc Transporters (Taylor et al., 2003). LZT proteins are similar to other ZIP proteins with respect to predicted secondary structure but they have a unique motif (HEXPHEXGD) in transmembrane V. Embedded within this motif is the consensus sequence of the catalytic zinc binding site of metalloproteases (HEXXH). This domain had been previously recognized in some presumptive ZIP family members (Begum et al., 2002 Suzuki and Endo, 2002), with Suzuki and Endo (2002) referring to it as the HELP domain. The LZT sub-family includes members from at least 12 different species including...

Periplocaceae

Calotropis Sketch

P An alcoholic extract of the above-ground portion of the plant had been found to have an inhibitory action against the cell culture (KB) of human carcinoma of the nasopharynx (Abbot et al., 1966). In a further study at the Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Centre (CCNSC), systematic fractionation showed that mainly oleandrogenin, gitoxigenin and rhodexin B were significantly active (Abbot et al.,

Who Flos Chamomillae

In clinical trials, topical application of a camomile extract in a cream base was found to be superior to hydrocortisone 0.25 for reducing skin inflammation 18 . In an international multicenter trial camomile cream was compared with hydrocortisone 0.25 , fluocortin butyl ester 0.75 , and bufexamac 5 in the treatment of eczema of the extremities 18 . The camomile cream was shown to be as effective as hydrocortisone and superior to the other two treatments, but no statistical analysis was performed. Camomile preparations have also been found to be beneficial in the treatment of radiation mucositis owing to head and neck radiation and systemic chemotherapy 31 .

Z zerumbet L Smith

Zerumbone inhibited the proliferation of human colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the growth of the normal human dermal (2FO-C25) and colon (CCD-18CO) fibrobasts was less affected. It also induced apoptosis in COLO205 cells, as detected by the dysfunction of the mitochondria transmembrane, the Annexin N-detected translocation of phosphatidyl serine, and the chromatin condensation. Alpha-humulene, a structural analogue lacking only the carbonyl group in zerum-bone, was virtually inactive in all experiments, indicating that the alpha, beta-unsatur-ated carbonyl group in zerumbone may play some pivotal role in interactions with an unidentified target molecule. The results strongly support the claim that zerumbone in a food phytochemical (neutraceutical), has a potential use in anti-inflammation, chemo-prevention, and chemotherapy strategies. Dai et al. (1997) reported that zerumbone has a potent HIV-inhibitory action.

Violets

When I was small, my parents often told me how, around the time I was born, they had renounced the customary lawn care service because they just didn't know what those guys were spraying. Later, when I was in high school, my mother was diagnosed with breast cancer, and my parents noted that three of the four women at their corner intersection had received this diagnosis, and all had used a lawn service at some point. (The remaining one hadn't lived there long.) Although my parents had no research to back up their suspicions, a 2007 study showed that breast cancer has a statistical association with use of a lawn service.

Medicinal uses

Soybeans contain a variety of anti-carcinogenic phytochemicals, including lunasin and lectins. Lunasin is a polypeptide that arrests cell division and induces apoptosis in malignant cells. Lectins are glycoproteins that selectively bind carbohydrates lectins are being used in medicine in a variety of new applications. Medical research has shown that foods rich in soybean protein may be protective against prostate cancer by helping to promote healthier prostate tissues. The components of soybean that may be helping to prevent colon cancer are called isoflavones and saponins. Soybean also contains omega-3 fatty acids that help to provide protective benefits against breast cancer.

Aromatase Inhibitors

Catalyzes the rate-limiting step in estrogen synthesis, from the conversion of androgens (an-drostenedione and testosterone) to estrogens. (Aromatase is also known as estrogen synthetase.) By inhibiting this enzyme, the transformation of testosterone into estradiol (and resultant decreased levels of testosterone) can be slowed. Aromatase inhibitors are useful for both men and women in women, aromatase transforms stored androgens into estrogens. For this purpose, aromatase inhibitors are now used as anti-cancer agents for treating estrogen-dependent cancers. Currently, three aromatase inhibitors are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration anastrazole (Arimidex ),exemestane(Aromasin ), and letrozole (Femara ) mainly for treating estrogen-dependent breast cancers when they first arise and when they recur. Various lignans and flavonoids have been shown to inhibit the aromatase enzyme. Lignans are phytoestrogens with weak estrogenic effects and possibly antiestrogenic effects....

Isoflavones

Breast cancer Incidences of breast cancer, a common disease in western countries, are now on the rise in other parts of the world also. Barnes et al. (1990) was the first to show that a soybean diet reduces the incidence of mammary tumours in rats. Subsequently, several epidemiological studies indicated the inverse relationship between breast cancer and soy food intake (Lee et al., 1991 Pisani et al., 2002 Wu et al., 2008). Isoflavone supplements (40 mg day-1) Concerns were raised when isoflavones were found to stimulate cell proliferation in breast-cancer-sensitive cell lines (Zava and Duwe, 1997 Bail et al., 2000). Messina and Wood (2008) addressed these concerns by highlighting the point that isoflavone exposure at levels consistent with the dose in historical Asian soy foods does not elicit adverse stimulatory effects on breast tissue. Estrogenic effects of soy isoflavones have also been implicated in the association of soy food with moderating post-menopausal symptoms such as hot...

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