Subgroup 3 Chamaephytes hemicrytophytes and therophytes excluding species in the subgroups 1 and

Described are 11 chamaephytes, 58 hemicryptophytes and 15 therophytes. Since we do not have more slides from species from single genera or ecological units we have to accept that the group is taxonomically and anatomically heterogenic. The following paragraph will give an impression of the possible structural variability. A few species were also placed in subgroup 1.

Therophytes have only one ring (Figs. 38 and 39). Rings are absent in a few species of arid regions (Figs. 40, 41 and 49). The majority of the chamaephytes and hemicryptophytes in all vegetation zones have distinct or recognizable rings (Figs. 4247) and (Figs. 50, 51 and 58). Ring-porous is only Coronilla vaginalis (Fig. 43). Most species are semi-ring-porous to various degrees (Figs. 44-47). Vessels are grouped in radial multiples of different length (Figs. 47-49) or in tangential to radial patterns (Figs. 50, 51, 56, 59). All species have simple perforations (Fig. 52). Intervessel pits are small and round (Fig. 53) or scalari-form in different intensities (Fig. 52). Vessels are thick-walled in most species (Fig. 54). Helical thickenings and tylosis are absent. Dark staining substances occur occasionally but they are not a species-characteristic feature (Figs. 44, 46). Very small vessels (<20 pm) occur in a few Trifolium species. Fibers are

Chamaephytes

pa v te

Fig. 40. Plant without annual rings. Vessels are arranged in radial multiples and in tangential layers. Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemicryptophyte, sandy plain, arid zone, Fezzan, Libya. Lupinus tassilicus, transverse section.

Fig. 40. Plant without annual rings. Vessels are arranged in radial multiples and in tangential layers. Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemicryptophyte, sandy plain, arid zone, Fezzan, Libya. Lupinus tassilicus, transverse section.

Left Fig. 38. Annual plant (therophyte) with one ring. Vessels are arranged in tangential layers. Root collar of a 50 cm-high therophyte, vineyard, hill zone, Vienna, Austria. Vicia sativa, transverse section.

Right Fig. 39. Annual plant (therophyte) with one ring. Vessels are arranged in radial multiples. Root collar of a 25 cm-high therophyte, (seeded in autumn, grown in spring), meadow, cultivated, hill zone, Bir-mensdorf, Switzerland. Trifolium incarna-tum, transverse section.

Therophytes

Fig. 42. Ring-porous hemicryptophyte with indistinct rings. Root collar of a 40 cm-high hemicryptophyte, moist forest, hill zone, Idahoe, USA. Lupinus albicaulis, transverse section.

Fig. 41. Plant without annual rings. Vessels are arranged in radial and diagonal multiples. Root collar of a 25 cm-high chamae-phyte, sandy plain, arid zone, Fezzan, Libya. Crotalaria saharae, transverse section. The species is also placed in subgroup 1.

Fig. 42. Ring-porous hemicryptophyte with indistinct rings. Root collar of a 40 cm-high hemicryptophyte, moist forest, hill zone, Idahoe, USA. Lupinus albicaulis, transverse section.

v r mostly thick-walled and frequently contain tension wood (Fig. 44). Vessel diameter of the majority varies from 30-80 pm and the number of vessels from 100-200/mm2. The distribution of axial parenchyma cells can be apotracheal (diffuse in aggregates) (Figs. 55 and 56) or paratracheal, e.g. in tangential intra-annual (Fig. 57) or marginal bands (Figs. 58 and 59).

Ray width varies from uni-seriate (Fig. 60), to 1-2 (Fig. 61), 2-4 (Figs. 62 and 63), 4-10 (Figs. 64 and 65) and up to >10-seriate (Figs. 66 and 67). Only Desmodium illionense has rays with two distinct sizes (Fig. 68). Rays of many species are not lignified (Figs. 66 and 67). Rays of most species are homocellular, con sisting of square and upright cells (Fig. 69). Prismatic crystals occur in more than half of the species analyzed (Fig. 70).

There is a large variability in the anatomy of phloem and cortex structures. Collapsed sieve cells in tangential bands (Figs. 71 and 72) or radial strips (Fig. 73) are not frequent. Ray dilatations occur in the majority of species (Figs. 72-76). Sclere-ids occur in small groups (Figs. 74 and 75), in irregular radial groups (Fig. 76) in tangential belts (Fig. 77) or in tangential bands (Figs. 78 and 79). Prismatic crystals occur in the majority of species (Fig. 79).

secondary large ray v f pa unlignified fibers secondary large ray v f pa unlignified fibers

Unlignified Fibers

pa v

Left Fig. 43. Ring-porous to semi-ring-porous xylem of a long-living dwarf shrub. Root collar of a 15 cm-high chamaephyte, dry meadow, hill zone, Valais, Switzerland.

Coronilla vaginalis, transverse section.

Right Fig. 44. Semi-ring-porous wood with diagonal vessel distribution in the late-wood. Blue zones represent tension wood. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicrypto-phyte, dry Pinusponderosa forest, mountain zone, Colorado, USA. Thermopsis divaricar-pa, transverse section.

Unlignified Fibers
dss

Fig. 46. Semi-ring-porous xylem with indistinct rings. Part of the central tissue is filled with dark substances. Root collar of a 40 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, hill zone, Birmensdorf, Switzerland. Vicia sepium, transverse section.

Fig. 45. Semi-ring-porous wood with vessels in short radial multiples. Root collar of a 40 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, hill zone, Illinois, USA. Lespedeza hirta, transverse section.

Fig. 46. Semi-ring-porous xylem with indistinct rings. Part of the central tissue is filled with dark substances. Root collar of a 40 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, hill zone, Birmensdorf, Switzerland. Vicia sepium, transverse section.

Fig. 47. Semi-ring-porous xylem. Fibers are arranged in patches within a parenchymatic tissue. Root collar of a 15 cm-high hemicryptophyte, dry meadow, hill zone, Brian^on, France. Lotus corniculatus, transverse section. The species is also placed in subgroup 1.

Chamaephytes

Fig. 52. Vessels with simple perforations and sclaraiform and round intervessel pits in opposite position. Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemicryptophyte, cold steppe, boreal zone, Lake Baikal, Russia. Hedysar-um gmelinii, radial section.

Fig. 52. Vessels with simple perforations and sclaraiform and round intervessel pits in opposite position. Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemicryptophyte, cold steppe, boreal zone, Lake Baikal, Russia. Hedysar-um gmelinii, radial section.

Left Fig. 48. Plant with one ring (thero-phyte). Vessels are arranged in radial multiples. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemi-cryptophyte, dry meadow, Mediterranean zone, Provence, France. Medicago rididula, transverse section.

Right Fig. 49. Vessels are arranged in radial multiples. Parenchyma is arranged paratracheal vasicentric and in tangential layers. Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemic-ryptophyte, sandy plain, arid zone, Fezzan, Libya. Tephrosia leptostachya, transverse section.

Left Fig. 50. Vessels in the latewood are arranged in tangential and slightly diagonal patterns. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, subalpine zone, Grisons, Switzerland. Hippocrepis comosa, transverse section.

Right Fig. 51. Vessels and fiber groups in the latewood are arranged in diagonal patterns. Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemi-cryptophyte, meadow, mountain zone, Grisons, Switzerland. Anthyllis vulneraria, transverse section ivp

Fig. 53. Vessels with small round interves-sel pits in alternate position. Rhizome of a 60 cm-high hemicryptophyte, dry meadow, Mediterranean, Provence, France. Lathyrus sylvestris, radial section.

transverse section

Tejido Vascular
Fig. 54. Thick-walled solitary vessels surrounded by pervasive parenchyma cells and thick-walled fibers. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, mountain zone, Grisons, Switzerland. Trifolium pratense, transverse section.

"pa

Fig. 59. Xylem with distinct marginal parenchymtic layers. Rays are not lignified. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicrypto-phyte, meadow, subalpine zone, Washington, USA. Lupinus obtusifolius, transverse section.

"pa

Left Fig. 55. Thick-walled vessel groups. Parenchyma is apotracheal and paratra-cheal. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemic-ryptophyte, wet meadow, subalpine zone, Kaukasus, Georgia. Trifolium ambiguum, transverse section.

Right Fig. 56. Vessels and fibers are arranged in tangential layers and are surrounded by paratracheal and marginal parenchyma. The large rays are not lignified. Root collar of a 40 cm-high hemicrypto-phyte, meadow, mountain zone, Grisons, Switzerland. Onobrychis viciifolia, transverse section.

Left Fig. 57. Fibers and parenchyma cells (vasicentric paratracheal confluent) are arranged in tangential layers. Vessel density varies from 30-50/mm2. Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, subtropical zone, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. Ononis angustissima, transverse sec-

Right Fig. 58. Fibers and vessels are arranged in tangential layers. Parenchyma is vasicentric paratracheal and marginal. Root collar of a 5 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, Mediterranean, Provence, France. Ononis minutissima, transverse section.

Unlignified Fibers

Fig. 61. Uni- and biseriate rays with un-lignified cells. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicryptophyte, dry meadow, hill zone, Valais, Switzerland. Medicago minima, tangential section.

Fig. 59. Xylem with distinct marginal parenchymtic layers. Rays are not lignified. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicrypto-phyte, meadow, subalpine zone, Washington, USA. Lupinus obtusifolius, transverse section.

Fig. 60. Uni-seriate rays with unlignified cells. Root collar of a 25 cm-high thero-phyte, meadow, hill zone, Birmensdorf, Switzerland. Trifolium incarnatum, tangential section.

Fig. 61. Uni- and biseriate rays with un-lignified cells. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicryptophyte, dry meadow, hill zone, Valais, Switzerland. Medicago minima, tangential section.

Advent Banner Designs

Left Fig. 62. 2-4-seriate rays with unlig-nified cells. Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemicryptophyte, dry meadow, Mediterranean zone, Provence, France. Medicago rididula, tangential section.

Right Fig. 63. Irregularly formed, 3-5-seri-ate rays with unlignified cells. Root collar of a 50 cm-high hemicryptophyte, vineyard, hill zone, Vienna, Austria. Vicia pannonica, tangential section.

pa pa

Unlignified Fibers

shoot v shc shoot v shc f r v

Chamaephytes

Left Fig. 64. Slender 4-7-seriate rays, partially with sheet cells. Root collar of a 5 cm-high hemicryptophyte, steppe, mountain zone, Colorado, USA. Trifolium dasyphyl-lum, tangential section.

Right Fig. 65. Elliptic 4-8-seriate rays. Root collar of a 5 cm-high hemicrypto-phyte, meadow, subalpine zone, Colorado, USA. Trifolium nanum, tangential section.

Left Fig. 66. >10-seriate rays with unligni-fied cells. Rhizome of a 20 cm-high hemi-cryptophyte, moist forest, hill zone, Idaho, USA. Lupinus albicaulis, tangential section.

Right Fig. 67. >10-seriate rays with un-lignified cells, partially with lateral layers of sheet cells. Root collar of a 15 cmhigh hemicryptophyte, meadow, arctic zone, Yamal Penninsula, Russia. Hedysarum arcti-cum, tangential section.

Chamaephytes

left Fig. 68. Ray dimorphism: uni- and multi-seriate rays. Root collar of a 40 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, hill zone, Michigan, USA. Desmodium illionense, tangential section.

Right Fig. 69. Mainly homocellular ray with square and upright cells. Some cells contain prismatic crystals. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicryptophyte, subtropical zone, on volcanic rock, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. Lotus aragonensis, radial

Left Fig. 70. Ray cells containing prismatic crystals. Heterocellular ray with a few pa procumbent and many square and upright cells. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemi-si cryptophyte, meadow, subtropical zone, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. Ononis an-gustissima, radial section.

Right Fig. 71. Phloem with irregular zones of collapsed sieves tubes. Sclereids occur in older external parts near ray dilatations. Root collar of a 50 cm-high dwarf shrub, dry oak forest, hill zone, Trento, Italy. Hip-pocrepis emerus, transverse section.

Left Fig. 72. Young phloem (blue) with tangential layers of collapsed sieve-tubes and older phloem (red) with sclereids. Ray dilatations are distinct in the young phloem. Root collar of a 40 cm-high hemicryp-tophyte, meadow, mountain zone, Brian-£on, France. Trifolium rubens, transverse section.

Right Fig. 73. Phloem with irregular radial zones of collapsed sieve-tubes (dark blue). Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemicrypto-phyte, meadow, arctic zone, Yamal Pen-ninsula, Russia. Hedysarum arcticum, transverse section.

Transverse Section Ginger

Left Fig. 74. Phloem and cortex with a few isolated sclereids (red). Root collar of a 25 cm-high chamaephyte, sandy plain, arid zone, Fezzan, Libya. Crotalaria saharae, transverse section.

Right Fig. 75. Phloem and cortex with small groups of sclereids (red) between ray dilatations. Root collar of a 25 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, Mediterranean zone, Provence, France. Lathyrus sy, transverse section.

Tallo Malva Microscopio

J50jum

Left Fig. 76. Phloem with a dense scleren-chymatic zone which wedges out towards the cortex. Root collar of a 5 cm-high hemicryptophyte, coastal rock, subtropical zone, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Lotus glau-cus, transverse section.

Right Fig. 77. Belt of small groups of scle-reids in the older phloem. Root collar of a 5 cm-high hemicryptophyte, dry oak forest, Mediterranean, Provence, France. On-onis minutissima, transverse section.

sc cry sc cry

Chamaephytes

Left Fig. 78. Tangential layers of sclereids and parenchyma/sieve-tubes. Root collar of a 40 cm-high dwarf shrub, garigue, Mediterranean, Andalusia, Spain. Anthyllis cyti-soides, transverse section.

Right Fig. 79. Tangentially oriented groups of sclereids are surrounded by prismatic crystals (white). Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicryptophyte, cold steppe, boreal zone, Laike Baikal, Russia. Hedysa-rum zundukii, transverse section, polarized light.

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