Rhizomes

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The anatomical differences between rhizomes and stems are the following: The amount of aerenchyma is reduced and there are no metaxylem-borne lacunes (Figs. 14 and 15). Crystallized fibers and crystals are absent.

Hydrophyte Stem Level

Fig. 1. Stem with scattered vascular bundles surrounded by a loose aerenchymatic tissue. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, hill zone, Federsee, Bavaria, Germany. Nuphar lutea, transverse section.

Fig. 1. Stem with scattered vascular bundles surrounded by a loose aerenchymatic tissue. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, hill zone, Federsee, Bavaria, Germany. Nuphar lutea, transverse section.

Fig. 3. Stem with scattered vascular bundles surrounded by a loose aerenchymatic tissue. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 50 cm below water level, backwater of the Danube, hill zone, Slovakia. Nymphaea candida, transverse section.

Fig. 2. Stem with scattered vascular bundles in a parenchymatic tissue and large and small air ducts. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, pond, hill zone, Switzerland. Nymphaea alba, transverse section.

Fig. 3. Stem with scattered vascular bundles surrounded by a loose aerenchymatic tissue. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 50 cm below water level, backwater of the Danube, hill zone, Slovakia. Nymphaea candida, transverse section.

Fig. 2. Stem with scattered vascular bundles in a parenchymatic tissue and large and small air ducts. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, pond, hill zone, Switzerland. Nymphaea alba, transverse section.

Closed Collateral Bundle

Left Fig. 4. Closed collateral vascular bundle. An air duct stays outside the vascular bundle. The xylem does not contain vessels and consists of small and large parenchyma cells. The phloem consists of parenchyma cells and collapsed sieve tubes. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, hill zone, Federsee, Bavaria, Germany. Nuphar lutea, transverse section.

Right Fig. 5. Two closed collateral vascular bundles in opposite orientation with an air duct between them. The construction is similar to that of Nuphar lutea, but the external bundle (top) has at least one vessel (near the air duct). Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, pond, hill zone, Switzerland. Nymphaea alba, transverse section.

en W duct

Left Fig. 6. Central radial vascular bundle with large air ducts. Phloem and xylem cannot be differentiated. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 50 cm below water level, backwater of the Danube, hill zone, Slovakia. Nymphaea candida, transverse section.

Right Fig. 7. Unlignified vessels with helical thickenings. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, hill zone, Federsee, Bavaria, Germany. Nuphar lutea, radial section.

Rhizomes Trasverse Section

Left Fig. 8. A star-shaped hair is based in a nodal cell of aerenchymatic tissue. Small crystals occupy the hair. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, hill zone, Federsee, Bavaria, Germany. Nuphar lutea, transverse section.

Right Fig. 9. A star-shaped hair is located in a border cell of an air duct. Small crystals occupy the hair. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, pond, hill zone, Switzerland. Nymphaea alba, transverse section.

collenchyma cell

Collenchyma Cells Fig

Left Fig. 10. Epidermis and a subepidermal collenchyma zone. A few cells have very thick cell walls. See also Figs. 11 and 12. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, pond, hill zone, Switzerland. Nymphaea alba, transverse section.

Right Fig. 11. The thick-walled cell is surrounded by small prismatic crystals. See also Fig. 12. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, pond, hill zone, Switzerland. Nymphaea alba, transverse section.

collenchyma cells collenchyma cells

Left Fig. 12. Longitudinal view of a single thick-walled cell, which is occupied by small prismatic crystals. The adjacent cells represent collenchyma. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, pond, hill zone, Switzerland. Nymphaea alba, radial section.

Right Fig. 13. Irregular group of small crystals in an air duct. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 50 cm below water level, backwater of the Danube, hill zone, Slovakia. Nymphaea candida, transverse section, polarized light.

Rhizomes Trasverse Section

Left Fig. 14. Rhizome with two vascular bundles surrounded by aerenchymatic tissue. Some cells contain dark-staining grains (not starch). Rhizome of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, hill zone, Federsee, Bavaria, Germany. Nuphar lutea, transverse section.

Right Fig. 15. Rhizome with a central zone of densly packed vascular bundles. This zone is surrounded by small aerenchymatic tissue and an epidermis. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 50 cm below water level, backwater of the Danube, hill zone, Slovakia. Nymphaea candida, transverse section.

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