Hf

Fig. 7. Tangential layers of unlignified parenchyma cells, collapsed sieve tubes and lignified groups of sclerenchyma cells. Stem of a 6 m-high tree, Mediterranean zone, rock field, Pyrenees, France. Acer monspes-sulanum, transverse section.

Fig. 6. Prismatic crystals in axially chambered cells. Stem of a 5 m-high tree, canyon, Mediterranean zone, Cyprus, Greece. Acer obtusifolium, radial section.

Fig. 7. Tangential layers of unlignified parenchyma cells, collapsed sieve tubes and lignified groups of sclerenchyma cells. Stem of a 6 m-high tree, Mediterranean zone, rock field, Pyrenees, France. Acer monspes-sulanum, transverse section.

Fig. 8. Tangential layers of unlignified parenchyma cells, collapsed sieve tubes and mostly irregular groups of sclerenchyma with prismatic crystals. Stem of a 12 m-high tree, beech forest, hill zone, Ticino, Switzerland. Acer pseudoplatanus, transverse section.

Aesculus hippocastaneum

The xylem of Aesculus hippocastaneum is distinguished from Acer sp. by its high vessel density (Fig. 9), uniseriate rays (Fig. 10) and lack of crystals. Particular features in the radial section were not observed (Fig. 11).

The phloem consists of alternating rows of interrupted, tangential, double rows of sclereids and unlignified sieve tubes and parenchyma rows (Fig. 12). Characteristic for this species are the extremely large prismatic crystals (Fig. 13).

Fig. 9. Diffuse-porous xylem with distinct rings. Characteristic is the high vessel density. Stem of a 15 m-high tree, hill zone, Botanical Garden Batumi, Georgia. Aesculus hippocastaneum, transverse section.

Fig. 10. Uni-seriate rays and a vessel with large intervessel pits arranged in alternating and opposite position. Stem of an 8 m-high tree, plantation, hill zone, Vienna, Austria.

Aesculus hippocastaneum, tangential section.

Fig. 10. Uni-seriate rays and a vessel with large intervessel pits arranged in alternating and opposite position. Stem of an 8 m-high tree, plantation, hill zone, Vienna, Austria.

Aesculus hippocastaneum, tangential section.

Fig. 11. Vessel with helical thickenings and ray cells in the cross field with slightly enlarged pits. Homocellular ray with procumbent cells. Stem of an 8 m-high tree, plantation, hill zone, Vienna, Austria. Aesculus hippocastaneum, radial section.

Left Fig. 12. Phloem with alternating rows of sclereids, unlignified sieve tube and parenchyma. Stem of a 15 m-high tree, hill zone, Botanical Garden Batumi, Georgia.

Aesculus hippocastaneum, transverse section.

Right Fig. 13. Extremely large prismatic crystals and crystal druses in unlignified parenchyma cells. Stem of a 15 m-high tree, hill zone, Botanical Garden Batumi, Georgia. Aesculus hippocastaneum, transverse section.

Discussion in relation to previous studies

The tropical species were described and anatomically classified mainly by Klaassen (1999). Many Acer species as well as Aesculus hippocastaneum were described by several authors (Gregory 1994). Ray width of specimens from well-grown stems seems to differentiate Acer campestre, A. platanoides and A. pseudoplatanus (Grosser 1977). The bark of Acer campestre, A. platanoides, A pseudoplatanus and Aesculus hippocastaneum was described by Holdheide (1951).

Present features in relation to the number of analyzed species

IAWA code frequency

Present features in relation to the number of analyzed species

IAWA code frequency

Total number of species

15

1

growth rings distinct and recognizable

15

5

diffuse-porous

15

9

vessels predominantly solitary

14

9.1

vessels in radial multiples of 2-4 common

15

13

vessels with simple perforation plates

15

21

intervessel pits opposite

1

22

intervessel pits alternate

15

36

helical thickenings present

15

40.2

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 20-50 pm

1

41

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 50-100 pm

15

42

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 100-200 pm

1

50.1

100-200 vessels per mm2 in earlywood

14

50.2

200-1000 vessels per mm2 in earlywood

1

58

dark-staining substances in vessels and/or fibers

(gum, tannins)

5

61

fiber pits small and simple to minutely bordered

(<3 pm = libriform fibers)

15

67

thick- and thin-walled fiber bands, Acer type

14

70

fibers thin- to thick-walled

15

70.2

tension wood present

6

75

parenchyma absent or unrecognizable

1

79

parenchyma paratracheal

14

96

rays uniseriate

1

97

ray width predominantly 1-3 cells

7

98

rays commonly 4-10-seriate

9

104

ray: all cells procumbent (radial section)

15

105

ray: all cells upright or square

0

136

prismatic crystals present

3

142

prismatic crystals in axial chambered cells

5

R2

groups of sieve tubes in tangential rows

7

R4

sclereids in phloem and cortex

7

R6.1

sclereids in tangential rows

7

R7

with prismatic crystals

7

R8

with crystal druses

1

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