Fig

Fig. 1. Vessels with simple perforations. Rhizome of an 80 cm-high hemicrypto-phyte, rock field, mountain zone, Piemont, Italy. Aconitum lycoctonum, radial section.

WS m

Fig. 2. Vessels with simple perforations. Root collar of a 20 cm-high annual plant, field, Mediterranean zone, Provence, France. Adonis flammea, radial section.

>250 Mm

Fig. 3. Circular arranged vascular bundles in a parenchymatic tissue. Horizontal rhizome of a 15 cm-high geophyte, beech forest, hill zone, Switzerland. Anemone nemorosa, transverse section.

Fig. 2. Vessels with simple perforations. Root collar of a 20 cm-high annual plant, field, Mediterranean zone, Provence, France. Adonis flammea, radial section.

>250 Mm

Left Fig. 4. Circular arranged vascular bundles in a thin-walled parenchymatic tissue of a helophyte. Stem of a 10 cm-high helophyte, wet meadow, mountain zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus flammula, transverse section, polarized light.

Right Fig. 5. Circular arranged vascular bundles around the pith. Rhizome of an 80 cm-high hemicryptophyte, rock field, mountain zone, Piemont, Italy. Aconitum lycoctonum, transverse section.

interfascicular meristem

Left Fig. 6. Circular arranged vascular bundles around the pith. The bundles form an almost closed ring. Rhizome of an 80 cm-high hemicryptophyte, wet meadow, mountain zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus lanuginosus, transverse section, polarized light.

Right Fig. 7. Vascular bundle without any sclerenchymatic groups. The bundles are laterally connected with an interfas-cicular meristem. Rhizome of a 60 cm-high hemicryptophyte, wet meadow, subalpine zone, Switzerland. Aconitum napellus, transverse section.

p vab

eu u

former protoxylem (lacune)

Left Fig. 8. A row of thin-walled, lignified parenchyma cells surrounds the vascular bundle (endodermis). The bundle is not laterally connected with an interfascicular meristem. Rhizome of a 30 cm-high hemi-cryptophyte, wet meadow, mountain zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus aconitifolius, transverse section.

Right Fig. 9. Bi-collateral vascular bundle of a hydrophyte. Vessel walls are unligni-fied. The crushed protoxylem is replaced by a lacune. Stem of a 1 m-long floating hydrophyte, almost stagnating river, hill zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus trichophyllus, transverse section.

Left Fig. 10. A belt of thick-walled scleren-chyma fibers surrounds a collateral vascular bundle. Stem of a 30 cm-high hemicrypto-phyte, wet meadow, mountain zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus aconitifolius, transverse section.

Right Fig. 11. Centrifugal and centripetal ends of the collateral vascular bundles contain arc-shaped zones of intensively ligni-fied sclerenchyma fibers. Bulb-like rhizome of a 10 cm-high plant, dry meadow, hill zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus bulbosus, transverse section.

ivp ivp si:

pa he

Left Fig. 12. Annular to scalariform inter-vessel pits. Rhizome of a 20 cm-high hemi-cryptophyte, volcanic rock, subtropical climate, mountain zone, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Ranunculus cortusifolius, radial section.

Right Fig. 13. Very fine helical vessel-wall thickening. Stem of a 1 m-long floating hydrophyte, almost stagnating river, hill zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus trichophyllus, radial section.

nu ivp

ivp pa ivp pa

Left Fig. 14. Vessels with round to slit-like intervessel pits and simple perforations. Stem of a 30 cm-high hemicryptophyte, wet meadow, mountain zone, Switzerland.

Ranunculus aconitifolius, radial section.

Right Fig. 15. Vessels with scalariform to slit-like vessel pits and simple perforations. Bulb of a 10 cm-high hemicryptophyte, cultivated in a garden, hill zone, Switzerland. Eranthis hyemalis, radial section.

nu ivp

Left Fig. 16. Unlignified thin-walled vessels in a collateral vascular bundle. Stem of a 15 cm-high hydrophyte, pond, hill zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus circinatus, transverse section.

Right Fig. 17. Pervasive parenchyma in a collateral vascular bundle. Rhizome of a 10 cm-high hemicryptophyte, meadow, mountain zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus montanus, transverse section.

Left Fig. 18. Simply structured phloem in a collateral vascular bundle. Sieve tubes and parenchyma cells have almost the same shape in cross sections. Rhizome of a 50 cm-high hemicryptophyte, wet meadow, mountain zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus lanuginosus, transverse section.

Right Fig. 19. Small vascular bundle in a cortex with large, thin-walled parenchyma cells. A phellem is absent. Horizontal rhizome of a 15 cm-high geophyte, beech forest, hill zone, Switzerland. Anemone ranun-culoides, transverse section.

eu rt eu u

500 Mm

Left Fig. 20. Cortex with large, thin-walled parenchyma cells. A phellem is absent. The starch-containing cells (blue) are protected by a compartimentalized zone (brown). Rhizome of a 25 cm-high hemicrypto-phyte, wet meadow, hill zone, Switzerland. Calthapalustris, transverse section.

Right Fig. 21. Sieve-cell groups in the cortex. The cortex is surrounded by a small phellem. Rhizome of a 60 cm-high hemi-cryptophyte, wet meadow, subalpine zone, Switzerland. Aconitum napellus, transverse pa pa

pa intercellulares

'starch vab

'starch vab pa intercellulares

Left Fig. 22. A sieve-tube group with circular arranged sieve tubes. The group is embedded in parenchyma cells that contain starch. Rhizome of a 60 cm-high hemic-ryptophyte, wet meadow, subalpine zone, Switzerland. Aconitum napellus, transverse section.

Right Fig. 23. Cortex with thin-walled parenchyma cells and distinct intercellulares. Rhizome of a 50 cm-high hemicryptophyte, wet meadow, mountain zone, Switzerland.

Ranunculus lanuginosus, transverse section.

intercellulares intercellulares

Left Fig. 24. Intercellulares between large, unlignified, thin-walled parenchyma cells in the cortex. The external cell wall of the epidermis is dentate. Bulb of a 15 cm-high helophyte, wet meadow, mountain zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus flammula, transverse section.

Right Fig. 25. A cortex with aerenchyma between unlignified parenchyma cells surrounds a vascular bundle. Stem of a 15 cm-high hydrophyte, pond, hill zone, Switzerland. Ranunculus circinatus, transverse section.

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