Ecological trends and relations to life forms

Anatomical ecological trends were not found. The high age of Berberis empetrifolium (53 years) is an indicator of longevity at high altitudes. Basic anatomical structures as radial or dendritic arrangement of vessels and tangential arrangement of sieve-tube/parenchyma bands in the phloem are consistent in all growth forms (shrubs and hemicryptophytes). pit r f r f vat sf

Fig. 13. Thick-walled groups of fibers surround vessel groups and vascular tracheids. Stem of a 1 m-high shrub, dry rock, arid zone, Moab, Utah, USA. Mahonia fremon-tii, transverse section.

iiSM

250 Mm

Fig. 11. Brown staining substances in vessels are probably a reaction to an injury. Stem of a 1.5 m-high shrub, hedge, mountain zone, Engadin, Switzerland. Berberis vulgaris, transverse section.

Fig. 12. Septate fibers. The horizontal walls are unlignified. Fibers are perforated by many small slit-like pits. Stem of a 1.5 m-high evergreen shrub, garden, hill zone, Birmensdorf, Switzerland. Berberis julianae, transverse section.

Fig. 13. Thick-walled groups of fibers surround vessel groups and vascular tracheids. Stem of a 1 m-high shrub, dry rock, arid zone, Moab, Utah, USA. Mahonia fremon-tii, transverse section.

Fig. 11. Brown staining substances in vessels are probably a reaction to an injury. Stem of a 1.5 m-high shrub, hedge, mountain zone, Engadin, Switzerland. Berberis vulgaris, transverse section.

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Fig. 12. Septate fibers. The horizontal walls are unlignified. Fibers are perforated by many small slit-like pits. Stem of a 1.5 m-high evergreen shrub, garden, hill zone, Birmensdorf, Switzerland. Berberis julianae, transverse section.

Left Fig. 14. Thin- to thick-walled fibers surround vessel groups. The blue-stained, unlignified fibers represent mostly fibers and tracheids and not parenchyma cells. Stem of a 70 cm-high shrub, volcanic rocks, subalpine zone, Patagonia, Argentina. Berberis empetrifolium, transverse section.

Right Fig. 15. Fibers with nuclei (living fibers). Rhizome of a hemicryptophytic herb, garden, hill zone, Birmensdorf, Switzerland. Epimedium pinnatum, radial section.

Fig. 16. Absent rays. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicryptophytic herb, Douglas fir forest, hill zone, Cascade Range, Portland, WA, USA. Vancouveria planipetala, tangential section.

Fig. 16. Absent rays. Root collar of a 20 cm-high hemicryptophytic herb, Douglas fir forest, hill zone, Cascade Range, Portland, WA, USA. Vancouveria planipetala, tangential section.

Fig. 17. Rays 2-3 cells wide. Ray height up to 8 mm. Stem of a 1.5 m-high evergreen shrub, hill zone, Botanical Garden Basel, Switzerland. Mahonia bealei, tangential section.

Fig. 18. Ray width up to 9 cells, partially with sheet cells. Ray height up to 8 mm. Stem of a 1.5 m-high evergreen shrub, hill zone, garden, Birmensdorf, Switzerland. Mahonia aquifolium, tangential section.

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