Carlquist 2007 analyzed much material and studied in detail the ontogeny of successive cambia of 11 perennial species of 11 genera representing a wide range of growth forms. The present study does not include the whole range of anatomical structures. Not represented are species with vascular strands (Stayle-ria neilii) or species with scalariform inter-vessel pits.
Present features in relation to the number of analyzed species
IAWA code frequency
Total number of analyzed species 5
2 growth rings indistinct or absent 5
5 diffuse-porous 5
10 vessels in radial multiples of 4 or more common 3
40.2 earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 20-50 pm 5
50.2 200-1000 vessels per mm2 in earlywood 5 58 dark-stained substances in vessels and/or fibers present (gum, tannins) 1 61 fiber pits small and simple to minutely bordered
70 fibers thin- to thick-walled 5
75 parenchyma absent or unrecognizable 3
79 parenchyma paratracheal 2
96 rays exclusively uniseriate 1
98 rays commonly 4-10-seriate 4 105 ray: cells upright or square 2 117 rayless 2 133 successive cambia, Caryophyllacea type 5 133.2 successive cambia, concentric continuous 5 134.1 conjunctive tissue thin-walled 5 149 raphids present 2 R1 groups of sieve tubes present 1 R10 phloem not well structured 5 R11 with rhaphides 2 P1 with medullary phloem or vascular bundles 1
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