Discussion in relation to previous studies

The most extensive wood anatomical study of woody species is that of Carlquist (1995). It includes a total of 16 species from Hawaii (7), Californian natural sites (3), California Botanical Garden (3), the Canary Islands (2), Lake Baikal (1) and Armenia (1). Fahn et al. (1986) described one dwarf shrub in Israel and Schweingruber 1990 the 4 species from Southern Spain and the Alps. Pfeiffer (1926) and Metcalfe and Chalk (1957) mention the successive cambia in some species of 19 genera, and Tellini (1939) provided a full description of the dwarf shrub Dianthus arboreus. Millner (1934) characterised in detail the root anatomy of Silene maritima and Silene vulgaris, and Kutschera and Sabotik (1992) described primarily the thin roots from 9 central European species. The present study is a converted version of the study from Schweingruber (2007).

The analyzed material of all earlier studies is heterogeneous in relation to life forms and geographical and climatic provenance. Despite the limited material, major family characteristics have been detected i.e successive cambia and imperforate tracheary elements.

eu u

Present features in relation to the number of analyzed species

70.1

intra-annual thick-walled tangential fiber bands

21

IAWA code

frequency

75

parenchyma absent or unrecognizable

4

Total number of analyzed species

100

79

parenchyma paratracheal

26

1

growth rings distinct and recognizable

78

79.1

parenchyma pervasive

82

2

growth rings indistinct or absent

13

89

parenchyma marginal

2

2.1

only one ring

9

89.2

ring shake, Saxifraga type

7

4

semi-ring-porous

67

96

rays exclusively uniseriate

2

5

diffuse-porous

10

97

ray width predominantly 1-3 cells

8

9

vessels predominantly solitary

96

98

rays commonly 4-10-seriate

10

9.1

vessels in radial multiples of 2 to 4 common

8

99

rays commonly >10-seriate

5

10

vessels in radial multiples of 4 or more common

2

99.1

vascular-bundle form remaining

1

11

vessels predominantely in clusters

16

100.2

rays invisible in in polarized light

5

13

vessels with simple perforation plates

100

105

ray: all cells upright or square

15

20

intervessel pits scalariform

71

110

rays with sheet cells (tangential section)

1

20.1

intervessel pits pseudoscalariform to reticulate

58

117

rayless

86

21

intervessel pits opposite

1

120

storied axial tissue (parenchyma, fibers,

39.1

vessel cell-wall thickness >2 pm

83

vessels in tangential section)

10

40.1

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter <20 pm

37

133

successive cambia: Caryophyllaceae type

14

40.2

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 20-50 pm

71

136

prismatic crystals present

2

41

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 50-100 pm

1

144

druses present

26

50.1

100-200 vessels per mm2 in earlywood

20

R1

groups of sieve tubes present

7

50.2

200-1000 vessels per mm2 in earlywood

80

R2

groups of sieve tubes in tangential rows

5

60.1

fibers absent

53

R3

distinct ray dilatations

18

61

fiber pits small and simple to minutely bordered

R4

sclereids in phloem and cortex

3

(<3 pm = libriform fibers)

42

R6.1

sclereids in tangential rows

6

62

fiber pits large and distinctly bordered

R7

with prismatic crystals

54

(>3 pm = fiber tracheids)

6

R8

with crystal druses

26

68

fibers thin-walled

6

R9

with crystal sand

8

69

fibers thick-walled

27

R10

phloem not well structured

82

70

fibers thin- to thick-walled

16

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