Discussion in relation to previous studies

Since most species represent valuable timbers, the xylem has been described many times. Gregory (1994) mentioned more than 200 references. Holdheide (1951) described the bark of Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Q robur. New to this study are descriptions of the bark of 3 Quercus and 1 Fagus species. The present results are in accordance with previous findings.

Characteristic of the family is the presence of enlarged interves-sel pits. All other features are taxa-specific and allow the determination of genera or even groups of species.

Present features in relation to the number of analyzed species

IAWA code

Total number of species frequency 22

cu u fd

1 growth rings distinct and recognizable 18

2 growth rings absent 4

3 ring-porous 15

4 semi-ring-porous 3

7 vessels in diagonal and/or radial patterns 19

8 vessels in dendritic patterns 18

9 vessels predominantly solitary 12 11 vessels predominantly in clusters 3

13 vessels with simple perforation plates 22

14 vessels with scalariform perforation plates 3

21 intervessel pits opposite 3

22 intervessel pits alternate 19

31 vessel-ray pits with large apertures, Salix/Laurus type 22

32 vessel-ray pits with large horizontal apertures,

Hamamelidaceae type 3

39.1 vessel cell-wall thickness >2 pm 4

41 earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 50-100 pm 3

42 earlywood vessels: tangential diameter

100-200 pm 19

50.1 100-200 vessels per mm2 in earlywood 22 56 tylosis with thin walls 18

60 vascular/vasicentric tracheids, Daphne type 13

61 fiber pits small and simple to minutely bordered

62 fiber pits large and distinctly bordered

69 fibers thick-walled 21

70 fibers thin- to thick-walled 12

70.2 tension wood present 18 76 parenchyma apotracheal, diffuse and in aggregates 22 79 parenchyma paratracheal 19 86 axial parenchyma in narrow bands or lines, Quercus type 18 96 rays uniseriate 19

98 rays commonly 4-10-seriate 3

99 rays commonly >10-seriate 21

103 rays of two distinct sizes (tangential section) 21 102 ray height > 1mm 10

104 ray: all cells procumbent (radial section) 22 136 prismatic crystals present 21 R1 groups of sieve tubes present 6 R2 groups of sieve tubes in tangential rows 3 R2.1 groups of sieve tubes in radial rows 0 R3 distinct ray dilatations 8 R4 sclereids in phloem and cortex 3 R6.1 sclereids in tangential rows 7 R6.2 sclereids in tangential arranged groups, Rhamnus type 1 R7 with prismatic crystals 3 R8 with crystal druses 2 R15 oil in rays 6 R16 phellem consists of regularly arranged rectangular cells,

Rosaceae type 3

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