Discussion in relation to previous studies

The xylem of all genera analyzed here have been characterized before. Gregory (1994) mentioned 177 references concerning numerous tropical genera. Holdheide (1951) described the bark of Morus rubra. Described here for the first time is the bark of 3 species. The few specimens analyzed here do not allow differentiation of species within genera. Since all species grow in the submediterranean or in the hill zone of the temperate climate, anatomical differences seem to be absent.

la la

Left Fig. 10. Phloem with tangential layers of sieve-tubes and parenchyma cells and many lacitifers. Stem of a 5 m-high tree, road side, Mediterranean, Provence, France. Broussonetia papyrifera, transverse section.

Right Fig. 11. Large lacitifers lateral to a dilatation in the phloem and the cortex. Stem of a 5 m-high tree, cultivated, arid zone, Sabah, Libya. Ficus carica, transverse section.

Left Fig. 10. Phloem with tangential layers of sieve-tubes and parenchyma cells and many lacitifers. Stem of a 5 m-high tree, road side, Mediterranean, Provence, France. Broussonetia papyrifera, transverse section.

Right Fig. 11. Large lacitifers lateral to a dilatation in the phloem and the cortex. Stem of a 5 m-high tree, cultivated, arid zone, Sabah, Libya. Ficus carica, transverse section.

pa pa

Left Fig. 12. Irregular distribution of parenchyma cells and sieve-tubes. Stem of a 5 m-high tree, cultivated, arid zone, Sabah, Libya. Ficus carica , transverse section.

Right Fig. 13. Isolated thick-walled scler-enchyma cells and thin-walled parenchyma cells. Stem of a 12 m-high tree, cultivated, hill zone, Zürich, Switzerland. Morus alba, transverse section.

Present features in relation to the number of analyzed species

70.2

tension wood present

7

IAWA code frequency

79

parenchyma paratracheal

8

Total number of species

8

85

axial parenchyma bands more than three cells wide,

1

growth rings distinct and recognizable

3

Ficus/ Urtica type

5

2

growth rings absent

5

89

parenchyma marginal

3

3

ring-porous

3

97

ray width predominantly 1-3 cells

3

9

vessels predominantly solitary

1

98

rays commonly 4-10-seriate

7

9.1

vessels in radial multiples of 2-4 common

8

99

rays commonly >10-seriate

3

11

vessels predominantly in clusters

2

106

ray: heterocellular with 1 upright cell row (radial section) 8

13

vessels with simple perforation plates

8

136

prismatic crystals present

6

22

intervessel pits alternate

8

142

prismatic crystals in axial chambered cells

1

36

helical thickenings present

3

R2

groups of sieve tubes in tangential rows

2

39.1

vessel cell-wall thickness >2 pm

4

R3

distinct ray dilatations

3

42

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 100-200 pm

8

R4

sclereids in phloem and cortex

1

50

<100 vessels per mm2 in earlywood

8

R6.1

sclereids in tangential rows

1

56

tylosis with thin walls

7

R7

with prismatic crystals

4

60

vascular/vasicentric tracheids, Daphne type

1

R12

with laticifers, oil ducts or mucilage ducts

4

61

fiber-pits small and simple to minutely bordered

R16

phellem consists of regularly arranged rectangular cells,

(<3 pm = libriform fibers)

8

Rosaceae type

4

70

fibers thin- to thick-walled

8

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