Discussion in relation to previous studies

The genera Juglans, Carya, Pterocarya and others have been described many times (Gregory 1994). The present description confirms all results of previous studies of Juglans regia.

pa pa pa pa

Fig. 4. Homocellular, 2-4-seriate rays. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, tangential section.

Fig. 3. Parenchyma is apotracheal in aggregates and paratracheal. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, tangential section.

Left Fig. 1. Diffuse-porous wood with distinct annual rings. Vessel density is below 30/mm2. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, transverse section.

Right Fig. 2. Ring boundary formed by thick-walled, rectangular fibers. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, transverse section.

Right Fig. 2. Ring boundary formed by thick-walled, rectangular fibers. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, transverse section.

Fig. 5. Phloem with tangential bands of thick-walled fibers. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, transverse section.

Fig. 4. Homocellular, 2-4-seriate rays. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, tangential section.

Fig. 5. Phloem with tangential bands of thick-walled fibers. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, transverse section.

Left Fig. 6. Ray dilatation with groups of sclerenchyma cells. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, transverse section.

Right Fig. 7. Tangetially arranged bands of collapsed sieve-tubes alternate large par-enchymatic zones. Stem, tree, cultivated, Zürich, Switzerland. Juglans regia, transverse section.

Present features in relation to the number of analyzed species

IAWA code frequency

Total number of species

1 growth rings distinct and recognizable 5 diffuse-porous 9 vessels predominantly solitary 9.1 vessels in radial multiples of 2-4 common 13 vessels with simple perforation plates 22 intervessel pits alternate

42 earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 100-200 pm 50 <100 vessels per mm2 in earlywood 56 tylosis with thin walls

61 fiber pits small and simple to minutely bordered

(<3 pm = libriform fibers) 70.2 tension wood present

76 parenchyma apotracheal, diffuse and in aggregates

97 ray width predominantly 1-3 cells

98 rays commonly 4-10-seriate 104 ray: all cells procumbent (radial section) R1 groups of sieve tubes present R2 groups of sieve tubes in tangential rows R3 distinct ray dilatations R4 sclereids in phloem and cortex

R6.2 sclereids in tangentially arranged groups, Rhamnus type R8 with crystal druses

R16 phellem consists of regularly arranged rectangular cells, Rosaceae type sc

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