Discussion in relation to previous studies

Cross-sections of both species have been described by Metcalfe and Chalk (1957). Miller (1959) studied the stem anatomy of Cannabis sativa and Anderson (1974) studied that of Hu-mulus lupulus.

Growth form specific features characterize stem anatomy. Large vessels, ring-porosity and thin-walled, unlignified strands of parenchyma are characteristic of the liana Humulus lupulus. In contrast, the compact, regularly formed, column-like xylem is characteristic of the large, upright Cannabis sativa. Common for both species are vessels with simple perforation and large vessel-ray pits.

Present features in relation to the number of analyzed specimens

IAWA code frequency

Total number of specimens

(2 species; Humulus lupulus rhizome and shoot) 3

1 growth rings distinct and recognizable 1

2.1 only one ring 2

3 ring-porous 1

9 vessels predominantly solitary 1 9.1 vessels in radial multiples of 2-4 common 1

10 vessels in radial multiples of 4 or more common 1 13 vessels with simple perforation plates 3

20 intervessel pits scalariform 2

21 intervessel pits opposite 1

22 intervessel pits alternate 2

31 vessel-ray pits with large apertures, Salix/Laurus type 1

32 vessel-ray pits with large horizontal apertures, Hamamelidaceae type 2

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 20-50 pm 2

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 50-100 pm 1

earlywood vessels: tangential diameter 100-200 pm 2

<100 vessels per mm2 in earlywood 3

100-200 vessels per mm2 in earlywood 1

tylosis with thin walls common 3 fiber pits small and simple to minutely bordered

fibers thick-walled 1

fibers thin- to thick-walled 2

tension wood present 1

parenchyma apotracheal, diffuse and in aggregates 1

parenchyma paratracheal 3

ray width predominantly 1-3 cells 2

rays commonly 4-10-seriate 1

100.2 rays not visible in polarized light 1

103 rays of two distinct sizes (tangential section) 1 ray: heterocellular with 2-4 upright cell rows

(radial section) 3

rays with sheet cells (tangential section) 1

prismatic crystals present 3

groups of sieve tubes in tangential rows 1

distinct ray dilatations 1

sclereids in phloem and cortex 3

sclereids in radial rows 1

sclereids in tangential rows 3

with prismatic crystals 1

with crystal druses 3

with laticifers, oil ducts or mucilage ducts 1


42 50

50.1 56 61

70.2 76 79



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