Definition of Vegetation Climate Types

We relate each analyzed species to vegetation/climate types, (Walther and Lieth 1967 and Walther and Breckle 1991). The following plant growth relevant parameters are presented in Table 2 below.

Mean January temperatures and precipitations indicate the severity of winter frosts and the water availability at the beginning of the growing season.

Mean July temperatures and precipitations indicate the growing conditions in summer.

Total annual precipitations indicate the general hydrological conditions.

The number of arid months is an indicator for potential growth limitations.

The number of winter month indicates the period without radial growth.

Table 2. Climatic values in relation to vegetation/climate types climatic data after Walter and Lieth (1967). The selection of climatic stations is in accordance with collected samples.

Classified vegetation types Vegetation

Meteorological station a ^ •2 -i

ta ra ita e ip

Table 2. Climatic values in relation to vegetation/climate types climatic data after Walter and Lieth (1967). The selection of climatic stations is in accordance with collected samples.

Classified vegetation types Vegetation

Meteorological station

arid

desert

Tucson, USA

739

10

22

30

60

293

10

-

subtropical desert

Tobruk, Libya

46

13

35

26

0

146

10

-

Gat, Libya

561

15

0

33

1

10

12

-

coastal desert below summer rain forest

Salalah, Oman

18

23

5

28

20

90

12

-

subtropical subtropical evergreen forest

laurel forest

La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain

547

13

95

21

5

594

4

-

Mediterranean

evergreen oak forest

Santa Barbara, USA

37

12

100

25

0

371

7

2-3

thermomediterranean

Tripolis, Libya

18

13

25

25

5

625

5

2-3

Faro, Portugal

153

12

50

25

0

363

6

2-3

Athens, Greece

105

10

29

25

0

383

6

2-3

succulent bush

St. Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

50

18

35

22

0

290

8

-

Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain

12

18

40

20

2

543

9

-

submediterranean

dry deciduous forest

Valence, France

126

5

40

21

45

904

1

3-4

Turin, Italy

260

2

45

23

40

679

1

3-4

Mostar, Croatia

70

6

100

25

40

1343

1

3-4

temperate hill zone

conifer forest

Astoria, USA

70

5

120

15

25

1935

-

5

warm temperate, humid

oak forest

Cardiff, U.K.

62

5

105

16

60

1043

-

5

chestnut forest

Lugano, Switzerland

276

2

70

21

110

1725

-

5

temperate hill zone and

humid deciduous forest

Basel, Switzerland

343

1

45

18

95

815

-

4

temperate hill and mountain zone temperate hill zone

dry pine forest

Sion, Switzerland

549

-1

55

20

50

590

-

4

St. Foy, France

430

4

80

20

60

938

-

4

pine forest

Vienna, Austria

203

0

45

19

80

685

-

4

temperate mountain zone

pine forest

Barcelonette, France

1134

-1

45

17

40

731

-

5-6

temperate mountain zone

spruce forest

La Brevine, Switzerland

1077

-3

105

12

105

1446

-

5-6

beech forest

Bachtel, Switzerland

1131

-1

100

12

110

1635

-

5-6

spruce forest

Mittenwald, Austria

910

-2

70

14

105

1337

-

5-6

temperate alpine zone

meadow, fir forest

Mt. Ventoux, France

1912

-4

80

10

60

1228

-

7

temperate subalpine zone

Rhododendron bush

Grimsel Hospiz, Switzerland

1962

-7

105

9

105

2070

-

7

larch, stone pine forest

St. Moritz, Switzerland

1853

-7

50

10

100

935

-

7

spruce forest

Wolf Creek Pass, Colorado, USA

3100

-7

15

14

10

100

-

7

alpine zone

rocks, meadow

Säntis, Switzerland

2500

-8

110

5

115

2785

-

8

Zugspitze, Austria

2962

-11

70

2

105

1350

-

8

boreal zone

pine forest

Irkutsk, Russia

467

-19

10

16

95

369

-

8

Sljud, Russia

401

-18

5

14

105

474

-

8

larch forest

Ochotsk, Russia

6

-23

3

11

60

238

-

8

spruce forest

Fort Yukon, Canada

127

-30

5

15

30

172

1

8

The classification used for each species corresponds with the following descriptions.

Arid. Subtropical arid zone (desert), with 10-12 arid months, occasionally with night frosts. Rainfall is below 300 mm. The present dataset includes species from the following regions:

- Regions with two rain periods (Sonora desert, Southwest NAmerica), see Tab. 3.1 Tucson. Land cover 20-40%. Shrubs and small trees, e.g. Larrea divaricata and many succulent species.

- Regions with one winter rain period (Northern Sahara, Ma-rocco), see Tab. 3.1 Tobruk. Land cover 20-30%. Shrubs and small trees, e.g. Acacia sp.

- Regions with one summer rain period (Dhofar, Oman), see Tab. 3.1 Salalah. Land cover 10-40%. Shrubs and small trees, e.g. Ficus salicifolia, Dodonea viscosa.

- Regions without periodic rainfall (central Sahara), see Tab. 3.1 Gat. Land cover <5%. Shrubs, e.g. Leptadenia py-rotechnica.

Subtropical. This zone has generally an arid season of 3 to 6 months, but no frost. The present dataset includes the following regions:

- Canary Islands: Warm, frost-free climate with minor seasonal temperature differences and without a distinct dry summer period. Permanent clouds on northern facing slopes of the Islands create fairly dense forest (Laurel forest). See Tab. 3.1 La Laguna.

- Southern coast of Oman: Temperatures like on the Canary island but with high precipitation from July to September.

Mediterranean. Mediterranean climate has winter rains, and an arid summer period, but occasional cyclonal rains are possible all year long.

- Thermomediterranean (Macchia and chaparral). Winter frosts are not below -5°C. Distribution along coasts mainly on south-facing slopes up to approximately 200 m a.s.l. The vegetation in Europe is characterized by Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and macchia shrubs. See Tab. 3.1 Santa Barbara, Tripolis, Faro and Athens.

The subtropical succulent bush zone at lower altitudes on the Canary Islands (Macaronesia) is included here because a long arid summer period mainly influences the composition of the vegetation. The zone is characterized by high winter temperatures and long summer droughts in the lowland on the Canary Islands (Macaronesia). See Tab. 3.1 St. Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas. Land cover 10-40%. Shrubs, succulents e.g Kleinia sp. and many introduced European species.

- Submediterranean. Mediterranean climate with winter rains and a short dry summer period, without a distinct cold winter but occasionally with winter frosts but not below -10°C. See Tab. 3.1 Valence, Turin, Mostar.

Wide region of southern Europe and the Black Sea at north facing slopes at low altitudes and on south-facing slopes at higher altitudes. The vegetation is characterized by (Quercus

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